LAST YEAR’S SESSION PROFILES
Check out last year’s abstracts, the winners’ abstracts among them, to help you form your own abstract this year.
GROUP PANEL PRESENTATIONS
SCIENCE AND THE SOCIAL GOOD
Secrets in Plain Sight: Mining Data Sets in the Social Science
Room 304, Ford Alumni Center
Presenters: Ryan Eanes (Media Studies) Matt Pittman ( Media Studies) and Jacob Levernier (Psychology)
Description: “Datafication” is a trend that is gaining in force in the 21st century. Events that before passed unnoticed or, at most, fell subject to qualitative observation are increasingly being translated into quantitative measures, compiled into possibly vast datasets, and archived for later analyses. As much as it is a process, datafication is also a frame of mind for researchers: conceptualizing data as everywhere and often readily accessible has enabled the emergence of a new type of inquiry that allows insight into group dynamics through large-scale observations of natural interactions. UO graduate students in Media Studies and Psychology are actively exploring techniques for aggregating and examining data in ways that promote or reflect the social good—from understanding the values of different communities through mining the obituaries they write about their dead to understanding the effects of media on public sentiment and examining how different social media may or may not help people feel connected. As useful for facilitating insight as datafication is, however, use of many public datasets also requires consideration of new ethical and legal issues. This panel will describe and explore ongoing research at the UO in these contexts.
Water, Our Planet’s Most Precious Resource (WINNER)
Room 304, Ford Alumni Center
Presenters: Thomas Ptak (Geography); Pollyanna Lind (Geography); Andrew Dutterer (Environmental Studies)
Description: Water is the most important natural and cultural resource on the earth. Not only is water critical for sustaining all forms of life, it often occupies a central role in the cultural beliefs, ontologies, and values of communities and indeed whole societies. While the importance and value of water cannot be challenged, approaches to ways water is managed and utilized are widely different. These differences can be understood to reflect the incredible diversity in people, places, and cultures that exist, co-exist, and often compete for this precious commodity. This panel will highlight the complex dichotomous, often contradictory nature of issues and challenges associated with water management, governance, and utilization in local, regional, and international settings. Graduate students from the departments of Geography, Environmental Studies, and Planning, Public Policy, and Management will situate their research within broader contexts by delivering a selection of case studies grounded in ongoing research conducted in Oregon, Costa Rica, and the People’s Republic of China over the past eight years. The panel aims to illustrate reasons why a diverse range of problems, approaches, and solutions exist and discuss potential pathways for the creation of new and diverse strategies for tackling issues of water management, governance, and utilization.
The Technologizing of Our World: Plugging into Hip-Hop Music, Education, Online Privacy, and Local Ecologies
Presenters: Chris Knowles (Special Education); Sean Peterson (Musicology); Alicia Kristen Roberts (Environmental Studies); Nicole Marsaglia (Computer and Information Science)
Description: Electronic technology is a mysterious entity in contemporary society, concurrently worshiped, feared, misused, and valued. The influence of such technology on communication and participation in the human experience is undeniable. In research and practice, innovations in electronic technology and its applications are astoundingly diverse. This panel presentation integrates research from graduate scholars in the fields of Computer and Information Sciences, Special Education, Musicology, and Environmental Studies. Each presenter will explore a component of the impact of electronic technology on his or her respective field of scholarship. Topics include telecommunication consultation for teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders, increased engagement in the natural environment through augmented reality, protection of online privacy, and an analysis of the production of hip-hop music. Discussion of outcomes include reduction of challenging child behavior, increased time interacting with local ecologies, improved social validity of online privacy protection, and improved understanding of the hip-hop musical aesthetic.
HUMAN RIGHTS, DEVELOPMENT, AND SUSTAINABILITY
Poetry, Narrative, and Ethics
Room 402, Ford Alumni Center
Presenters: Paula Wright (English); Charlotte Muzzi (Creative Writing); Aylie Baker (Environmental Studies); Quinn Lewis (Creative Writing)
Description: Bringing together a group of scholars and creative writers, this panel considers the relationship between art and ethics on a variety of fronts. Poets Quinn Lewis and Charlotte Muzzi discuss what role poetry can play in environmental conservation and the relationship between poetry and politics, respectively, Environmental Studies scholar Aylie Baker discusses the recent Serial podcast sensation covering a Baltimore murder case, and English Literature student Paula Wright considers the role of the contemporary poets and writers in social justice issues. Challenging or affirming W.H. Auden’s oft-quoted claim that “poetry makes nothing happen,” the panelists explore the role of poetry and narrative in contemporary society, including the issues of human rights, development, and sustainability.
Brazil: Favelas, Gender, Planning, and the World Cup
Room 402, Ford Alumni Center
Presenters: Emily Brown (Community & Regional Planning); Fabio Ramos de Andrade (Community & Regional Planning); Jaleel Reed (Environmental Studies); Shannon East (International Studies)
Description: Favelas throughout Brazil house some of the nation’s lowest-income residents. Residents of these low-income, high-risk communities often find themselves trapped in a cyclical pattern of crime as a means to survive. Brazilian favelas are often internationally notorious for their violence and poverty but also feature a rich culture and strong community relationships. Because of recent increases in international tourism and the 2014 World Cup, these communities have been receiving more attention. Controversial favela tourism is becoming more popular, and many residents in cities featuring World Cup matches rented out their homes to visitors during the event. The Brazilian government received bad press after entire communities were forcibly displaced to make way for pre-event construction. Panel members discuss social and environmental justice issues associated with community displacement and favela tourism in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, Brazil, such as increased housing costs and continued displacement. The panel ends on a positive note: one member will discuss ongoing research on the potential use of music and dance to decrease violence and empower marginalized young women in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro. Another member will discuss first-hand experience collected while working for the City of Salvador prior to the World Cup, ongoing research on participatory planning and governance models, specifically in the areas surrounding the World Cup stadium, and a comparative study with a model used in the United States.
Gender, Human Rights, and the Paradox of Statelessness (WINNER)
Room 402, Ford Alumni Center
Presenters: Sarah Hamid (Media Studies); Lindsay Massara (International Studies); Crystal Brown (Political Science)
Description: Roberto Unger describes the law as a “site of institutional imagination,” thereby limited and informed by power, norms, and the conditions of history. Identifying the figure of stateless persons as “the most symptomatic group in contemporary politics,” Hannah Arendt locates these limitations in the institutions of human rights that emerged following WWII: “No paradox of contemporary politics is filled with more poignant irony than the discrepancy between the efforts of well-meaning idealists who stubbornly insist on regarding as ‘inalienable’ those human rights, which are enjoyed only by citizens of the most prosperous and civilized countries, and the situation of the rightless themselves.” This panel seeks to engage with said ‘symptoms’ as they emerge among some of humanity’s most vulnerable minorities. We take on the figure of the refugee (Yazidi women fleeing war crimes in the Levant), the disenfranchised (Muslim women subject to militarized rape amidst the degradation of legal recourse in Indian-administered Kashmir), and the migrant (African/Black migrant women drawn to former communist countries in Eastern Europe by Soviet policies and now living under the European Union). We argue that in controlling admission into or expulsion from nationality, citizenship, and the legal apparatus as a whole, the nation-state becomes the ultimate arbiter of life, both qualitatively and literally. The specific way in which gender is inflected in this relationship intensifies the institutional inconsistencies and manifestations of violence faced by stateless persons that are largely ignored in the face of a conceptual bias toward preserving the nation state.
ACADEMY, RACE AND (IN)EQUALITY: BRIDGING RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
Dichotomies in Development, Education, and Perspective
Room 301, Ford Alumni Center
Urban or rural, bilingual or monolingual, adopted or biological? Explore how contrasting environments, experiences affect our cognitive development and behavior, educational opportunity and success, and attitudes toward race. Presentations include: School Remoteness and Poverty as Predictors of Opportunity to Learn Global Competence, Michael Thier (Educational Leadership and Public Administration); Positive Impact of Bilingualism on Inhibitory Control Development in the Face of Socioeconomic Risk, Jimena Santillan (Psychology); Exploring Segregation Measures alongside Racial Attitudes, Martha Camargo (Sociology); Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Maternal Trauma and Child Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems, Aleksandria Perez (Counseling Psychology)
- School Remoteness and Poverty as Predictors of Opportunity to Learn Global Competence
Presenter: Michael Thier (Educational Leadership and Public Administration)
Description: Global competence—the capacity and disposition to understand and act on issues of global significance—has been touted as an essential 21st century outcome for K-12 students in U.S. public schools. Some researchers have examined opportunities among university students to learn global competence, but little is known about the K-12 predictors. Examining the effects of school-level poverty and school remoteness with a novel approach to the urban-centric locale categories of the National Center for Education Statistics, this quasi-experimental research matched nonrandom samples to 422 U.S. public schools that offer International Baccalaureate (IB) degrees in states west of the Mississippi River. IB schools were matched with 844 comparison schools on four bases: state, lowest and highest grades taught in school (e.g., K-3, 6-8, 9-12, etc.), and total number of students. Binomial logistic regression results revealed that urban students have considerably higher odds of accessing global competence education compared with peers in suburban, fringe, distant, and remote schools. This research also predicted school remoteness as a moderator of school-level poverty: students in poor urban schools had a higher probability of accessing global competence than did students in poor remote schools. Implications for privileged opportunity to learn global competence and for policy recommendations are discussed.
- Positive Impact of Bilingualism on Inhibitory Control Development in the Face of Socioeconomic Risk
Presenter: Jimena Santillan (Psychology)
Description: Socioeconomic risk can have a detrimental impact on children’s development of inhibitory control (IC), a cognitive ability important for academic success. This finding has motivated researchers to identify protective factors that can buffer against the deleterious effects of low socioeconomic status (SES). The bilingual advantage hypothesis posits that bilingual children outperform monolingual children on tasks that require IC to resolve cognitive conflict because of the extensive experience bilingual children have managing two language representations, which exercises this ability. This effect has also been documented for bilingual children from lower SES backgrounds, suggesting that being bilingual might act as a protective factor for IC development in children facing socioeconomic risk. The present study tested this possibility by examining IC development during the transition from preschool to kindergarten in a nationally representative sample of children from lower SES backgrounds. Change over time in performance on a task measuring IC was compared among three groups: English monolingual children, Spanish-English bilingual children, and children who transitioned from being Spanish monolingual to being Spanish-English bilingual during this period. At the beginning of preschool, bilingual and monolingual children did not differ on IC performance. However, bilingual children’s performance increased more rapidly from preschool to kindergarten than did performance of monolingual children. Children who transitioned from monolingualism to bilingualism also had more rapid increases in IC performance than did monolingual children, despite starting off at a lower level. These findings suggest that the IC development of children from Spanish-speaking households facing socioeconomic risk is positively impacted by continued bilingual experience and by transitioning to bilingualism.
- Exploring Segregation Measures alongside Racial Attitudes
Presenter: Martha Camargo (Sociology)
Description: In the field of social psychology, three dominant theories explain how integration and segregation affect racial attitudes. Contact theory argues that encounters with minorities alleviate negative racial attitudes for whites. Group-threat theory argues that a large presence of minorities negatively impacts racial attitudes. Cultural theory argues that because of the embedded racial ideology in the U.S., contact alone cannot affect negative racial attitudes. The goal of my dissertation is to test these theories by exploring the relationship between individual-level racial attitudes and their geographic context. The empirical research used to test these central theories relies on dichotomous variables, i.e., South vs. non-South and urban vs. non-urban. This data limitation produces essentialized and oversimplified notions of how racism functions. I will explore alternative methods that may produce a more robust analysis of how geography and racial attitudes coincide.
- Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Maternal Trauma and Child Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems
Presenter: Aleksandria Perez (Counseling Psychology)
Description: Maternal trauma is a complex risk factor that has been linked to adverse child development outcomes, including internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. However, whether this association is genetic or environmental in nature remains unclear. In this study, I expected to find a significant association between the adoptive mother’s trauma history and the adopted child’s behavior problems and a nonsignificant link between the biological mother’s trauma history and the adopted child’s behavior problems. The study sample (n = 260; child mean age = 7 years) was obtained from the Early Growth Development Study, an ongoing longitudinal study of birth parents and adoptive families. The biological mother’s trauma was assessed using a cumulative score of number of traumatic events prior to pregnancy. The adoptive mother’s trauma history was assessed using questions matched to the items assessed for the biological mothers. The child’s behavior problems were assessed using parents’ reports on the Child Behavior Checklist. I found no significant association between the biological mother’s trauma history and the adopted child’s internalizing or externalizing behaviors. The adoptive mother’s trauma was significantly correlated with the adopted child’s internalizing problems (r = 0.16, p < 0.05) and marginally related to externalizing problems (r = 0.11, p = 0.08). To further understand this influence, I will expand these preliminary findings by exploring the mediating role of maternal depressive symptoms. Evidence of a significant association between the adoptive mother and the adopted child suggests that the influence of maternal trauma is primarily environmental. Prevention efforts targeting malleable factors in the rearing environment may help ameliorate negative influences of maternal trauma on child outcomes.
Gender and Sexuality
Room 301, Ford Alumni Center
In this session, our presenters examine belief systems related to gender and sexuality in four very different contexts: online role-playing games marketed to young girls, the criminal justice system, the newsroom, and our own university campus. Presentations include: Gameplay Mechanics, Aesthetics, and Ideology in Girl Games, Kelsey Cummings (Media Studies); Frats and Gnats: Rethinking Plato’s Concept of Ἀνδρεία Against Campus Sexual Assault, Dana Rognlie (Philosophy), Too Old or Too Ugly to Report the News, Patricia Cordell (Multimedia Journalism); Queering the Criminal Justice System, Nicole Francisco (Political Science)
- Gameplay Mechanics, Aesthetics, and Ideology in Girl Games
Presenter: Kelsey Cummings (Media Studies)
Description: I examined the gameplay mechanics and aesthetics of “girl games” (games marketed to young girls) to understand their ideological positioning in relation to identity, with a central focus on race, class, gender, and sexuality. My primary focus will be on how and why the mechanics and aesthetics of girl games enact particular ideological functions. I will also analyze how girl games navigate contradictory ideologies, complex identity spectrums, and intersections of identity. This research contributes to the field of game studies because it is centered on a genre that is generally understudied. Rather than focusing on mainstream video games or massively multiplayer online role-playing games, my research will analyze mostly single-player games that are clearly marketed for young girls. Rather than focusing on player engagement with the games, I will examine the games’ mechanics and their ideological implications. I will focus on a small sample of online games that are advertised and intended for young girls. These examples include dress-up, work-based, and relationship-based games but not games that are primarily intended for education rather than entertainment. The central goal of this research is to understand how gameplay mechanics (i.e., the actions that are made possible or impossible within a particular game) affect the game’s social narrative. The games under discussion encourage players to interact with them as a kind of practice for adult life. Subsequently, they offer cultural studies scholars rich insight into the social and political nature of play.
- Frats and Gnats: Rethinking Plato’s Concept of Ἀνδρεία Against Campus Sexual Assault
Presentation: Dana Rognlie (Philosophy)
Description: Glorifying the debauchery of white male academic delinquency, the film Animal House has served as a paragon in our cultural imagery for college life since 1978. The ubiquity of John Belushi’s “college” iconography in dorm halls and campus poster sales at the University of Oregon (the film’s setting) and campuses across the nation forty years later is a visible testament to the power of this cultural aesthetic. Estimating that one in five women on college campuses is a survivor of sexual assault, the White House recently affirmed what many feminists have known all along: the Animal House vision of university life is dangerous for women and non-normative bodies. Facing its own complex sexual assault crisis in May 2014, the UO was called on to “show courage, not crisis management.” My discussion takes seriously this call for institutional courage by a return to the founder of the Western academy, Plato, and his writings on ἀνδρεία, often translated as “courage” but more properly understood as “manliness.” Part of Plato’s philosophical project was to redefine ἀνδρεία in opposition to the manliness exemplified by failed generals on battlefields (Laches) and the banal masculinity of fraternity party culture (Protagoras). I argue that attending to Plato’s concept of ἀνδρεία through a gender lens provides resources to rethink the relation between aesthetics, education, and the sexed and racial body necessary for social change that might concretely realize what remains a campus myth: accessible education for all bodies.
- Too Old or Too Ugly to Report the News
Presenter: Patricia Cordell (Multimedia Journalism)
Description: My research focuses on the attrition of mature women from news reporting. Women leave newsrooms at a disproportionate rate compared with male reporters. A repeated theme in news media research is the prevailing gendered newsroom culture. Newsrooms of the past and present have been characterized as patriarchal, where male journalists use exclusionary strategies, make story assignment (access) decisions on the basis of sex, and female editors adopt tough male behavior to the detriment of rank-and-file female journalists. Considerable research has revealed that women over the age of 40 are disappearing from media across all platforms: in film, in television, as subjects of news coverage, as experts on topics, and online. The phenomenon has been dubbed “the disappearing older woman.” Harriet Harmon, deputy leader of the Labour Party of the United Kingdom, cited a 2013 study by the Older Women’s Commission. New data indicate that once women on television turn 50, their days on the screen are numbered. For men, “grey hair denotes wisdom, experience, authority,” but there seems to be a sense that viewers need to be protected from older women. The Commission also found unemployment for women aged 50–64 had increased by 41% in the last 2.5 years. The dismissiveness of legacy newsrooms is not sexually threatening, like the online invective called “trolling” leveled at female bloggers. However, some of the best talent in journalism is being silenced by fear from the onslaught of misogynist rhetoric and threats.
- Queering the Criminal Justice System
Nicole Francisco (Political Science)
Racism and poverty profoundly affect who is subjected to the criminal justice process. Less frequently discussed is the role that homophobia and transphobia play in influencing the criminal justice process, constructing the criminal, and punitive outcomes. Sexuality likely operates in conjunction with race and poverty to further disadvantage already vulnerable people.
Community of Place
Room 301, Ford Alumni Center
From how a community manages its water supply to how people recreate themselves in a new environment, in this session our presenters explore the interplay between people and their physical environment. Presentations include: Climate Displacement and Placemaking in Middle America, James Miller (Architecture); Relatedness and Care among One-and-a-Half-Generation Immigrant Deportees in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, Tobin Hansen (Anthropology); Splintered Memory: Remembrance and Political Inscription in Northern Ireland, Joseph Robison (Conflict and Dispute Resolution); Traditional Infrastructure, Modern Flows: Cultural Politics of Development in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, Olivia Molden (Geography)
- Traditional Infrastructure, Modern Flows: Cultural Politics of Development in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
Presenter: Olivia Molden (Geography)
Description: Stone spout water systems dating back to 560 C.E. continue to act as important spaces for cultural activities, communal organizing, and domestic water services in the Kathmandu Valley. Because the Valley’s public water company barely meets half of the annual water needs through the pipeline grid, demand for other forms of water provision, including tankers, private wells, rainwater harvesting, and public spouts, is rapidly growing. Recognizing that spouts serve approximately 10% of the Valley’s population, this research investigates the contemporary role of Lalitpur District’s spouts in terms of both use and management. Interviews, archival sources, court cases, and the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development 2013–2014 water supply survey provide a multidimensional perspective on stone spout use and management. Findings emphasize the diversity of community practices surrounding spout infrastructure use and water management and the conflicting methods of preservation implemented by government and international groups. Such divergences between groups and spaces in Kathmandu lead to larger questions surrounding the cultural politics of urban modernization efforts and resource governance.
- Splintered Memory: Remembrance and Political Inscription in Northern Ireland
Presenter: Joseph Robison (Conflict and Dispute Resolution)
Description: Sixteen years after the Good Friday Agreement (GFA) that ended the Northern Irish “Troubles,” Northern Ireland remains a deeply segregated and ethnosectarian society. Although a number of factors are driving this continued separation, the divergent ways in which the Troubles are remembered remains one of the most potent. Paramilitary groups in particular have been quite successful at inscribing their exclusionary and violent conflict memories and their notions of worthy and unworthy victimhood into public space. The current research departs from the larger subfield by arguing that narratives of violence are spatially and discursively resisted in Northern Ireland. I argue that since the GFA, additional claimants have asserted their rights to remember in public space and have challenged, sometimes publicly and sometimes subtly, the appropriation of their loved ones’ bodies by paramilitary groups and by the State. Public space in Northern Ireland increasingly is becoming evocative of multiple pasts; it is splintering and diversifying, and the consequences of this emerging reality remain understudied. One of the chief drivers of this diversification is the reclamation and reinscription of the bodies of 3,700 men, women, and children who violently lost their lives during the Troubles.
- Relatedness and Care among One-and-a-Half-Generation Immigrant Deportees in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico
Presenter: Tobin Hansen (Anthropology)
Description: One-and-a-half-generation immigrant deportees, brought to the U.S. from Mexico as infants or youth and decades later deported as adults over the Mexican border, experience wholesale reconfiguration of their family and social networks as they reconstruct past lifeways and forge new ones in unfamiliar Mexican border communities. Based on ethnographic research and life-history interviews of one-and-a-half-generation deportees in Nogales, Sonora, I explore the ways in which deportees create relatedness in their everyday lives through common activities, shared residence, reciprocity, and material and emotional care. Upon forcible removal from the U.S., often after years of imprisonment, deportees are further separated from their communities and families, which include U.S. citizen or permanent resident children, parents, and siblings from whom they receive occasional phone calls, visits, and remittances. Often these deportees have no contact with family in Mexico and are stigmatized in Nogales as “criminals” and pochos (more “American” than “Mexican”). With each other, deportees share intimate relationships and scarce living space, food, clothing, work opportunities, and cell phone minutes. Frequently, their solidarity networks—with friends, homies, compas, and bros—constitute their primary support during banishment to Mexico, where they have scarce employment opportunities and become targets for organized criminal groups and law enforcement. I seek to expand notions of deportees’ social networks to include care communities based on cultural identification anchored in the U.S. and shared existence in Mexico, as deportees experience the structural and everyday dimensions of violence in exile.
- Climate Displacement and Placemaking in Middle America
Presenter: James Miller (Architecture)
Description: Within the overarching framework of global climate change, this study approaches cultural sustainability in architecture through the study of immigrant place-making in northwestern Arkansas and the importance of culturally supportive built environments. The focus of this paper is the Marshallese immigrant population, which has been settling in northwestern Arkansas for more than thirty years and has seen a rapid increase in population over the past decade for a variety of reasons. This community is becoming the largest Marshallese population outside of the Marshall Islands, and one reason for emigration is the adverse effects of global climate change on the thirty-two atolls of the Marshall Islands. Using the central argument that cultural patterns are manifest within the built environment, this study aims to demonstrate that the Marshallese population will do what they can to maintain their cultural identity within the built environment they have available. The dialectic relationship between people and architecture demonstrates the aspects of the built environment that provide support for cultural continuity and that hinder cultural continuity. This study employs a qualitative methodology, utilizing participant observation, interviews, and site documentation. Initial findings from preliminary field research and qualitative analysis have revealed that the process of Marshallese place making in the building landscape of northwestern Arkansas is marked by cultural conflict, an insular and hidden spatial and aesthetic identity, and a burgeoning desire for land ownership and real estate development.
IMAGINATIVE DESIGN, ART, AND PERFORMANCE
When Words Meet Music: Robert Schumann and the Different Dimensions of Musical Poetry (WINNER)
Giustina Ballroom, Ford Alumni Center
Presenters: Alexis Smith (German); Hui Ling Khoo (Music Performance); Andrew Pham (Music Performance)
Description: Robert Schumann’s music was inspired by his life, literature, and poetry. This panel will illustrate the interaction of these elements within the musical dimensions of performance, interpretation, and composition. Musical performance is a communication between performer and audience. Hui Ling will explore how this communication can be aided with words in the Davidsbundlertänze, Op. 6. Inspired by the Davidsbundler and Schumann’s engagement to Clara, this piano suite is unfortunately hard for listeners to grasp. Drawing on Schumann’s letters and excerpts from Schumann’s New Journal for Music, Hui Ling will experiment with combining a spoken narrative with a performance of excerpts from the Davidsbundlertänze to communicate musical meaning. An interpretive process always precedes a performance. Alexis delves into this with Kreisleriana, Op. 16. Named after E.T.A. Hoffmann’s pseudonym, alter ego, and literary figure Johannes Kreisler, the title suggests correlations to Hoffmann’s early music critiques authored by Kreisler (Kreisleriana) and the fragmented biography of Kreisler in the novel Lebensansichten des Katers Murr. However, in letters to Clara, Schumann states that the music is about her. How can this musical content and meaning be reconciled? Just as words could lend meaning to music, the musical composition could also bring words to life. Andrew explores this relationship between music and text in Schumann’s Lieder. Schumann colors musical meaning through the interplay of vocal melody, piano accompaniment, and poetry. These elements often contradict each other and offer interpolated meaning through their interaction. Andrew will present select Lied analyses to demonstrate Schumann’s mastery of poetry in music.
Theory and Practice: Intersections of Research and Creativity in the Work of Scholar-Artists
Room 201, Ford Alumni Center
Presenters: Michelle Crowson (Comparative Literature); Emily Cole (History); Ying Xiong (Comparative Literature); Stephen Murnion (East Asian Languages and Literature)
Description: Conventional thinking divides scholarship and art into separate fields with disparate motives, methods, and standards of assessment. However, for working scholars who are also artists, this boundary is porous; each field is informed and enriched by the other. Our panel seeks to open a campus-wide conversation about graduate students and faculty who juggle these dual identities. What is gained from the simultaneous practice of art and research? What can we learn from articulating our dual identities in a scholarly forum? How can artistic practice enrich interdisciplinarity in the academic community? Four panelists from three departments will discuss the confluence of scholarly and creative production in their work as poet, jeweler, translator, and electronic music DJ.
Perspectives on Performance
Room 201, Ford Alumni Center
Presenters: Nikki Silvestrini (Folklore); Jules Helweg-Larsen (Folklore); Emily Ridout (Folklore); Julie Meyer (Folklore); Les Gray (Theater Arts)
Description: This panel features eight pecha kucha style presentations (20 slides, 20 seconds each), each examining some performance as it relates to the Folklore and Theater Studies disciplines. Our panel draws on the interdisciplinary methodology of performance studies as each presentation explores embodied ideas and beliefs in performances and the transformative nature of performance in social settings between performer and audience. Emily Ridout focuses on performance in tourism in Phuket, Thailand as it pertains to the environment and issues of sustainability. Julie Meyer examines gender and performance, specifically performance in commercial fishing as expressed through Fisher Poetry. Les Gray looks at performing black bodies as sites of memory, trauma, and home. Nikki Silvestrini analyzes performance of human and cat relationships in Internet cat videos. Jules Helweg-Larsen analyzes contemporary burlesque performance by looking at the success of the audience, the agency of the performers, and the challenging comedic nature of the performance itself. This panel highlights the possibilities of performance across a variety of contexts pushing the boundaries of performance to open up dynamic ways in which people behave and interact.
Room 403, Ford Alumni Center
This panel session includes four short poetry, dance and music performances. Presenters: Rebecca Larkin (Music Composition) Title: Through Twilight; Tara Burke (Arts Management) Title: Flow; Olga Oseth (Intermedia Music Technology) Title: Breeze; Elizabeth Valdez (Spanish) Title: home under the sky
- Through Twilight (15 minutes)
Performer: Rebecca Larkin (Music Composition)
Through Twilight is a string quartet written to illustrate a sunset. It will be performed by members of the UO SOMD. The following is a program note: As the sun begins to gently set, the light fades into the sky. Shimmers of light cling to daytime as they slowly evaporate, eventually succumbing to nightfall. In the sky’s rebirth, the vibrant colors of civil twilight paint the atmosphere, and quickly changing hues fill the sky before they begin to descend in shades of color. Nautical twilight evokes blues and purples as the guiding light of day still hovers on the horizon. The vast space is filled with deep tones that fade into the dark of astronomical twilight. Now void of color, the stars shine their brightest. As twilight closes, the sky is softly illuminated by the resulting night.
- Flow (7 minutes)
Performer: Tara Burke (Arts Management)
Description: I move to feel liberated. I move to feel less afraid. Movement is my voice that has no words but speaks volumes, to understand what it is like to tune away from everything else and just allow myself that full complete presence. The idea of flow is characterized by complete absorption in what one does and defined by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi: “It is when we act freely, for the sake of the action itself rather than for ulterior motives, that we learn to become more than what we were.” The purpose of this piece is to act in complete oneness with myself while offering this piece in hopes of inspiring others to follow their true flow.
- Breeze (7 minutes)
Performer: Olga Oseth (Intermedia Music Technology)
Description: I study the physics of sound, sound design, compositional techniques, and the use of data-driven devices as musical instruments. My creative work is an interactive-musical composition “Breeze,” a composition for Symbolic Sound’s Kyma and a WACOM tablet. This composition is based on a single audio sample of a bell, which is transformed in various ways. Using spectral analysis techniques, I am able to select specific frequencies, transpose them, and add them together. Granular reverberation is another technique that I used to process the same bell sound but with a unique, richer texture. Using the Kyma sound environment, I can manipulate sound in real time by interacting with the sound environment using a WACOM pen and tablet. WACOM recognizes the XYZ and tilt positions of the pen. The data streams generated by the WACOM system are directed into sound-producing algorithms contained in Kyma. Some of the key features that I interact with in real time in this composition are pitch, amplitude, and spatialization of sound.
- home under the sky (15 minutes)
Performer: Elizabeth Valdez (Spanish)
Description: In the summer of 2012, a friend of mine, who volunteered at a shelter, invited two homeless women to live with her. One woman lost her job due to cancer, the other because of a work accident. They had lived on the streets and in emergency shelters for several years. For a few months, I witnessed them negotiate social services systems to obtain medical care, mental health counseling, food stamps, cell phones, bus passes, and eventually permanent housing. Homelessness is an exhausting conundrum. It is also a complex human rights issue most individuals and communities prefer to avoid or ignore. Overburdened cities pass discriminatory laws, while agencies struggle to provide safe temporary shelter, food and basic services. As an obvious yet elusive symptom of deeper social, cultural and political issues, it requires examination. It is essential to resolve the current crisis, and prevent future homelessness. My brief contact with the two women increased my compassion toward all homeless and displaced people. “Home under the Sky” poems began to emerge, often inspired by a simple phrase I hear. Writing asks me to consider my attitudes, beliefs and fears about homelessness. Increasingly I am doing research, and developing ideas for practical solutions. The next step is to reach out. “At the Light” and “I Dare You” are composite impressions of the two women narrated from their perspectives. Written in Eugene since last September, “Autumn Bath” and “Winter River Walk” respond to the additional difficulties of maintaining one’s humanity while living outside.
Finding Common Ground: Rehearsals for Life Workshop
Room 403, Ford Alumni Center
Presenters: Eric Garcia (Counseling Psychology); Keisha Janney (Couples and Family Therapy); Rachel Smith (Media Studies); Yuge Han (Couples and Family Therapy); Steve Livingston (Counseling Psychology); Maiyra Espinoza (Couples and Family Therapy); Sara Clark (International Studies); Audrey Medina (Counseling Psychology); Crystal Brown (Political Science)
Both peer education and theatrical presentations are being recognized for the valuable role they can play in shaping campus culture. Through personal performance and experiential activities I will explore the use of theater as a tool for addressing the complex challenges that face students, faculty, and staff across disciplines. As the complexities of our lives increase, it becomes more important to collaborate across fields, identities, and nationalities to address the important social issues of our times. Interactive theater can be a powerful tool for illuminating common ground, highlighting differences, and creating environments for important dialogues to take place. Rehearsals for Life is a group of cross-disciplinary graduate students at the UO using applied theater as a tool for exploring the issues that face graduate students on our campus, including work-life balance, creating inclusive learning environments, and conflict resolution. Rehearsals for Life is a project of the Office of the Dean of Students and the Graduate School. Group members include representatives from Couples and Family Therapy, Counseling Psychology, Media Studies, International Studies, and Political Science.
Dixon Graduate Innovation Fellows: Unique Professional Development Opportunities
Room 403, Ford Alumni Center
Meet our 2014-15 Julie and Rocky Dixon Graduate Innovation Fellowship recipients, who will discuss how they shaped their own unique professional development experiences and how these experiences are shaping their career trajectory. Participants include: Leticia Montoya (Chemistry); Reza Motamedi (Computer and Information Science); Andrew Ritenour (Chemistry); Bryce Peake (Journalism and Communication and New Media and Culture); Alexis Smith (German); Mariko Plescia (Romance Languages)
- Abcam SimpleStep™ ELISA
Presenter: Leticia Montoya (Chemistry)
Description: Abcam is a biotech company that supplies high-performance immunoassays for quantitative and qualitative detection of proteins, commonly known as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). ELISAs are used to detect and quantify a specific analyte of interest from a complex mixture or solution. A SimpleStep™ ELISA achieves advanced immunoassay performance while preserving the performance characteristics of a traditional ELISA. A traditional ELISA can take 4–5 hours to obtain results; however, the SimpleStep™ ELISA takes only up to 2 hours, with a “mix, wash, read” protocol. The two types of assays use the same equipment for analyte detection, which includes a precoated plate, sample and protein standards, an antibody cocktail used to detect the analyte of interest, a detection solution, and a standard microplate spectrophotometer at 450 nm wavelength. However, the SimpleStep™ ELISA requires fewer steps, which results in a shorter assay time. The advantages of the SimpleStep™ ELISA are the high specificity of the antibody interactions, greater reproducibility, simplicity of the protocol, and shortened analysis time.
- On the Geography of Cross-Connects
Presenter: Reza Motamedi (Computer and Information Science)
Description: Commercial data center companies such as Equinix, CoreSite, or Telx manage and operate carrier-neutral colocation facilities (also called colos or data centers) where they provide, among other offerings, interconnection services. These dedicated facilities have known street addresses (e.g., 60 Hudson Street, New York and Wilshire One, Los Angeles) where their tenants and customers can interconnect with one another to exchange traffic by buying cross-connects (i.e., point-to-point connection used for private peering). Some 1000+ such colo facilities exist in the U.S., and my long-term research effort is directed at accurately mapping these facilities at scale (i.e., to infer who interconnects with whom in which colo facility). As a first step, I describe a new approach to discovering the physical link(s) between two connected ASes in a geography aware manner (i.e., within a city or a known colo facility). The methodology consists of launching targeted trace-route probes from selectively chosen measurement platforms and applying visualization, analysis, and domain knowledge to deduce realistic and operationally consistent connectivity structures from these measurements. This approach is illustrated with a case study of a known colo facility in Seattle, WA that shows the promise and challenges inherent in such a mapping effort.
- Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells
Presenter: Andrew Ritenour (Chemistry)
Description: The high balance-of-system costs of solar cell installations indicate that reductions in absorber cost alone are likely insufficient for solar electricity to reach cost parity with fossil fuels unless energy conversion efficiency is also increased. Technologies that both yield high-efficiency solar cells (>25%) and maintain low costs are needed. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is used in the highest efficiency single- and multi-junction solar cells, but the technology is too expensive for nonconcentrated terrestrial applications. This high cost is due in part to the limited scalability of traditional syntheses, which rely on expensive reactors and employ toxic and pyrophoric gas-phase precursors such as arsine and trimethyl gallium. This work describes GaAs films made by close-spaced vapor transport, a potentially scalable technique carried out at atmospheric pressure and requiring only bulk GaAs, water vapor, and a temperature gradient to deposit crystalline films with electronic properties to similar those of GaAs prepared using traditional syntheses.
- Building Tinn: UXR and IxD with Diverse Communities
Presenter: Bryce Peake (Media Studies)
Description: With input from research scientists at Intel Labs, I have been conducting ethnographic and technical research into the building of Tinn, a personal data tracking application for people living with tinnitus in Portland, OR. I will describe the iterative, value-focused user experience research (UXR) and interactive design (IxD) that went into building Tinn and highlight the practical work of corporate technology research scientists and the intellectual intervention that organizing research around “making things” can pose for the social sciences and empirically focused humanities. I will emphasize the necessity of a theoretically sophisticated approach to social difference when researching and building for marginalized communities.
- Jazz as a Window into the Nonprofit Sector
Presenter: Alexis Smith (German)
Description: I have combined my research on early German Romantic literature, philosophy, and music with completion of a Graduate Certificate in Nonprofit Management and an internship with the Willamette Jazz Society. Former Society President Nick Rieser invited me to participate in all aspects of the Society, including grant writing, marketing, educational outreach, board meetings, event planning, and hosting. Richard Linton (former UO Dean of the Graduate School and Vice President of Research) has put me in touch with countless UO personnel involved in fundraising. I have created a pamphlet and mailing list to promote the Jazz Jams to music programs at local schools. I also wrote a grant for a new front sign for the Jazz Station (the Society’s concert venue), which has been funded, and I will help organize and complete the construction of this sign. I organized and hosted a website and social media development meeting to gather requests and ideas from members of the Society and performed further research to create a Toolkit for the Society on how to better develop online relationships through updating the website and social media plan. In addition to helping the Society, I have contributed to the Department of German and Scandinavian through researching academic grants and cohosting a grant-writing workshop for graduate students.
- Corporation Cinememoria, EDOC International Film Festival in Quito, Ecuador
Presenter: Mariko Plescia (Romance Languages)
Description: Looking at an old photo is like going home after being away for a long time. It reminds you of who you are, where you come from, and how you have changed. For a nation, a region, or a generation, film can be very powerful in this way. By putting the past before our eyes, films create a moment in which we recognize traces of the past in our present or ask ourselves what has become of those lost moments. In Latin America, film has taken on the mission of provoking such revolutionary questions since the early 1960s. The Latin American tradition of creating revolutionary historical memory through film remains vibrant and dynamic. The not-for-profit corporation Cinememoria, where I have had the privilege of interning, forms part of this tradition and works toward these goals. Cinememoria is dedicated to the creation, preservation, and promulgation of audiovisual patrimony in Ecuador. Each year the corporation hosts the Encuentros del Otro Cine (EDOC) international documentary film festival, which annually brings to Ecuador a high-caliber program of contemporary documentary films, keynote speakers, and discussion panels. I will provide more information regarding Cinememoria’s team and work and will give a brief description of how I have been spending my time at Cinememoria and how this work compliments my dissertation research.
Giustina Ballroom, Ford Alumni Center
Daylight Redirecting Double Facade Prototype
Presenter: Belal Abboushi (Architecture)
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, electric lighting makes up 21.7% of total energy consumption in commercial buildings. Daylighting is an essential strategy to reduce electric lighting use. However, commercial buildings typically have too many or poorly placed windows with little or no shading, which causes daylight to be concentrated at the perimeter and deficient in interior spaces. Poor daylighting design can lead to increased electricity consumption and visual discomfort. This study presents an exterior façade system that improves daylight distribution and visual comfort in perimeter building areas. The façade system uses daylight redirecting film, a promising new façade technology that uses microscopic reflectors to reflect daylight toward the ceiling, in a new manner outside the building to shade the window while increasing daylight at the interior. A full scale prototype was installed and monitored on the Façade Integrated Technologies (FIT) testing facility at the University of Oregon for 1 month to determine the impacts of the system on horizontal and vertical illuminance, glass surface temperature, and interior solar radiation. Results show the prototype balances interior daylighting by reducing daylight near the window and increasing daylight toward the interior. High dynamic range images of the prototype under direct sun show positive impacts on visual comfort because direct sun is redirected away from working surfaces and onto the ceiling. This study highlights the importance of façade design and the potential of new technologies to improve daylight quality and reduce electric lighting use.
Connecting Africa through Mobile Telecommunication: The Binary between Development and Economic Inequality
Presenter: Benjamin Adu-Kumi (Media Studies)
Africa within the last two decade has seen a massive development in telecommunication services, mobile phone usage, and its accompanying infrastructure. This development has also triggered changes in the lives of people and the economies of these countries both at the macro and the micro level. The changes are considered significant in that it has set in motion, another form of economic activity and development that is running alongside the major economic occupations of agriculture and the harness of natural resources.
Data from the International Telecommunication Unit (ITU) indicates that event though the percent of people using mobile phones in Africa is still at its crawling stage, there are evidence to suggest a gradual growth in the use of mobile phones. For example, it is estimated that nearly 65% of households in about 23 countries in sub-Saharan Africa as at 2013 had one mobile phone in the household. This represented a 27% growth rate and an annual median growth of 5%. In some countries the growth rate is higher than the overall rate.
Informed by the diffusion of innovation theory, this paper posits that, Africa is gradually accommodating mobile phone and telecommunication infrastructure as a tool for the development of core sectors of the economy. Example of such includes education, governance, banking, and politics among a host of other institutions. In spite of the mass adoption of the telecommunication tools and infrastructure, there are still deep seated troubles associated with the operations of mobile telecommunication technology in Africa. It is the aim of this paper to explore and delineate some of these challenges which includes the huge taxes on talk time, cost of owning mobile phones, the mass importation of low quality mobile phones from china and the repatriation of profits to the home countries of the multi-national corporations in charge of the services.
ArtCore: An Immersive Arts Integration School Transformation Model
Presenter: Ross Anderson (Educational Leadership)
ArtCore is a 4-year federally funded model development, research, and dissemination grant designed and implemented collaboratively in five Lane County middle schools. Distinct innovations of the research-based model include a school-wide transformation approach, technology-driven access for professional and personal development, a focus on motivational factors of learning and change, integration of creative disciplines and academic domains through an interdisciplinary pedagogy, teaching collaboration between creative professionals and classroom teachers, and the interpretation of art as a way of experiencing and contributing to the world creatively, which is unique to each individual. The resulting outcome will be to accelerate fragmented arts integration toward a comprehensive, sustainable, and cohesive school-wide transformation by including extensive community involvement, school and district leadership, and technology to build infrastructure that will outlast grant funding and ensure iterative refinement contextualized to each community over the long term. Through a mixed methods approach, several studies will accompany the development and evaluation of the ArtCore model. Three phases will include both qualitative and quantitative methods: (a) feasibility and usability studies, (b) a pilot study, and (c) a longitudinal study of teachers and students. Overall, students in the first cohort will be compared with a control group from sixth grade to ninth grade to determine the model’s long-term impact on students. By triangulating measurement of complex noncognitive skills and dispositions (such as creativity and mindset) using self-report, observation, and work samples, these studies will reveal reliable and valid relationships between student characteristics, noncognitive skills, and educational success.
The Application and Effects of Service Dog Training by Inmates to Self-Perception and Self-Other Overlap as a Rehabilitative App
Presenter: Carmaleta Aufderheide (Conflict and Dispute Resolution)
With the highest incarceration rate in the developed world, the U.S. remains locked in a dilemma of rehabilitation versus a punitive approach to crime. Penal systems across the nation face the difficulty of balancing punishment and rehabilitation, complicated by political and public perceptions of what incarceration should provide. Rehabilitative efforts in the penal system include vocational training programs designed to offset inmate deficits but frequently do not have an individual-centered approach to rehabilitation and community re-entry. Restorative justice movements hold offenders accountable to their victim(s) using dialogue as the tool of restoration; however, these programs remain incomplete for many, leaving the issue of how to effectively address an offender’s human side in relation to their past, present, and future in question. Prison animal programs that pair inmates with young service dogs in training consistently report anecdotal benefits including improved self-esteem, autonomy, empathy, and helping behaviors. Although promising, these results lack scientific validation. With similar findings reported among relationship closeness studies in psychology, this first look into the effects of animals in prisons through relationship closeness between the inmate and dog in training may offer some new insights. This research investigates the self-reported (qualitative) effects of service dog training by inmates, with a specific (quantitative) focus on relationship closeness between inmate handler and dog, self-expansion, and inclusion of the dog in the self as it relates to our current understanding of animals as part of a restorative and rehabilitative process.
Par Complex-Directed Protein Polarization Using Phosphorylation-Regulated Membrane
Presenter: Matthew Bailey (Chemistry)
The Par polarity complex creates mutually exclusive cortical domains in diverse animal cells. Activity of the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is a key output of the Par complex in that phosphorylation often induces substrate polarization. For these polarized substrates (which include Lethal giant larvae [Lgl], Miranda [Mira], and Numb), phosphorylation inhibits localization to the cortical domains where the Par complex localizes. We investigated how diverse phosphorylation induces cortical displacement for apparently unrelated Par substrates. Lgl, Mira, and Numb contain short basic and hydrophobic (BH) motifs that interact directly with phospholipids and are critical for cortical localization of each protein. The aPKC phosphorylation site within these proteins overlaps with the BH motif, and by changing the electrostatic character of the BH motif phosphorylation inhibits its interaction with phospholipids and the cell cortex. Our sequence analysis suggests that sequences that are both BH motifs and aPKC phosphorylation sites can mediate protein polarization downstream of the Par complex in highly divergent polarized cell types.
Barriers to Dissemination of Evidence Based Preventative Interventions: Qualitative Data from the Field
Presenter: Phyllis Barkhurst (Counseling, Family, and Human Services)
My research involves the assessment of the disparity between the availability of evidence-based interventions for effective prevention purposes and the actual implementation of such interventions in the field. To conduct this assessment, we first conducted a limited literature review on the subject and read more than 25 articles published in the past 5 years to ground ourselves in the topic. Next, we conducted a Qualtrics survey of researchers, asking researcher/developer-specific questions related to the themes identified in the literature review. We then conducted more than 20 in-person interviews with both researchers and practitioners to gather their input and assessment on the topic. We are now in the process of writing up our findings and relating the implications for the field.
The Benefits of Working for the Division of Equity and Inclusion as a Counseling Psychology Doctoral Student
Presenter: Derrick Bines (Counseling Psychology)
The UO Division of Equity and Inclusion (DEI) aims to promote inclusive excellence through a commitment to institutional fairness and equality, eradication of discrimination, and celebration of the strengths of a multicultural community. As an Institutional Priority and Strategic Alliance graduate teaching fellow (GTF) for DEI, I have gained experience developing and implementing programming designed to foster equity and inclusion within the campus and surrounding community. This GTF position grants me the opportunity to obtain knowledge and first-hand administrative experience. The UO Counseling Psychology (CPSY) program emphasizes multicultural education, cross-cultural mental health interventions, and counseling competence. Working for the Vice President for Equity and Inclusion allows me to enhance cross-cultural knowledge and use this knowledge and my CPSY training to develop relationships with diverse communities. As a graduate student, networking is key to my career development. Serving as the GTF for DEI has allowed me the opportunity to meet campus administrators and interact with staff members from various departments. This position has also allowed me to be mentored by administrators and individuals with many years of experience in academia.
Human Aesthetic Response to Fractal Geometry
Presenter: Daryn Blanc-Goldhammer (Psychology)
One way to study complex natural scenes in a controlled manner is by using fractal stimuli. Fractals are patterns that are self-similar at increasingly fine scales. Much of nature can be described using the scaling factor, dimension (d), which describes the complexity of a fractal image. Previous research has demonstrated a universal preference for fractal stimuli that have low- to mid-range complexity (d = 1.3). Most of the research on fractal preference has used stimuli containing statistical randomness, meaning that the patterns are self-similar on average but do not repeat exactly at each iteration. In this study, we attempt to replicate the universal preference curve for fractals that contain statistical randomness and expand the research to include fractals that repeat exactly. In a simple preference task, we presented fractals of various dimensions (d = 1.1 … 1.9) that either repeated exactly or contained statistical randomness. Participants were asked to rate the visual appeal of these low- to mid-range dimension of statistically random fractals. Rather, we found that women preferred high dimension stimuli regardless of the randomness component, and men preferred high dimension exact stimuli but low dimension statistically random stimuli. Our failure to replicate the universal preference curve could have been associated with differences in the proportions of men and women between these studies. We are currently running follow-up studies to test this hypothesis and to control for different rating scales.
Wnt Signaling has Distinct Temporal Roles in Semilunar and Atrioventricular Canal Valve Development
Presenter: Fernanda Bosada (Biology)
Heart valve development proceeds through a series of highly coordinated steps by which endocardial cushions develop into mature, elongated, and stratified valves. Many of the cell signals that direct these sequential events in valve development and the mechanisms by which they drive discrete processes remain largely unknown. One such signaling cascade, the Wnt pathway, is frequently activated during embryogenesis and organogenesis to promote differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis. Previous expression and classic loss-of-function (LOF) studies suggest that Wnt and its effector, β-catenin, have roles in endocardial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) through postnatal steps of valvulogenesis. However, because of the broad requirements for developmental of Wnt signals, parsing individual roles of this critical pathway at different stages of valve formation is challenging using conventional genetic approaches. We have developed a transgenic mouse system that provides chemically induced inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling by expression of Dkk1, a specific Wnt inhibitor, in a tissue-restricted manner. Using this chemical genetic approach, we show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for EMT in the proximal outflow tract (pOFT) but not the atrioventricular canal (AVC) cushions. We also show that the requirement for Wnt in pOFT EMT is not cell autonomous, likely reflecting earlier Wnt activity in cardiac progenitor cells or neighboring myocardium. Following EMT, we show that Wnt signaling is activated in cushion mesenchymal cells where it has a permissive role supporting the expansion of the AVC cushions and, likely indirectly, their elongation and remodeling into mature valves. In addition to LOF studies, we observed that Axin2, a negative regulator of Wnt, becomes expressed throughout the entirety of the valves in later stages of embryonic heart development. Axin2 knockouts displayed larger, more proliferative valves, which suggests that Axin2 acts to suppress Wnt during midvalvulogenesis to prevent valve overgrowth. Our data suggest that while canonical Wnt signaling is active and dynamically regulated at various stages of valve development, its roles may be less discrete than currently understood.
Microsatellite Marker Development for Wild Bonobo (Pan paniscus) Fecal Samples
Presenter: Colin Brand (Anthropology)
Studies of wild apes are critical to understanding the behavior of early humans. Both chimpanzees and bonobos are good models because they are our closest relatives and are equally related to humans. Relatively few studies on wild bonobo populations have been conducted to date, and very few of these studies have investigated the genetics of these populations. We seek to inform behavioral observations through the genetic analysis of the Iyema community of bonobos in the Lomako Forest in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The objective of this study is to hone the methods for extracting and analyzing bonobo DNA from frozen fecal samples stored in RNAlater. To determine relatedness and population demographics, DNA was extracted from wild bonobo fecal samples and screened for polymorphism at 10 microsatellite loci originally developed for analysis of human DNA. Preliminary work has demonstrated that at least four of these microsatellite markers amplify and are polymorphic in bonobo DNA extracted from feces. When the analysis of all 58 fecal samples is complete, we will assess the allelic diversity at each microsatellite locus and determine the sex and relatedness of the individuals present in our sample. The importance of genetic information to our ongoing study of wild bonobos is also discussed.
The Digital Voice of Jacob: Amplifying the Jewish East End for Modern Audiences
Presenter: Allison Bray (English)
Under the direction of Heidi Kaufman (UO Department of English) and John Russell (UO Digital Scholarship Center), I am using the coding language TEI to digitize a nineteenth-century newspaper, The Voice of Jacob, published for the Jewish community in Victorian East London. By tracking names, events, bibliographic references, and locations mentioned in the paper—including its subscriber list—we will eventually be able to map the data according to local models of London in the 1840s and global models of the Jewish diaspora that remain unexplored in terms of their literary and cultural connections. Our goal is to make these data accessible to scholars of Jewish culture and periodical studies of the nineteenth century and to reveal new questions. Marking these data points to later visualize with maps, graphs, and timelines will advance scholarship in Jewish studies by pointing out new patterns and challenging previous assumptions. We hope to encourage new efforts to digitize and network the archival records of Jewish culture in all the ways it intersects with other studies of gender, class, and geography. Digital scholarship such as this represents a much needed shift in how material is preserved and presented to modern audiences. This approach allows many voices, not just those of the Jews of the East End but others marginalized in history and even now in academia, to resonate in new and compelling ways.
Chronic Passive Heat Therapy Improves Endothelial Function and Arterial Stiffness in Young Healthy Humans
Presenter: Vienna Brunt (Human Physiology)
Exercise is a potent means of improving cardiovascular health; however, many patient populations are unable to exercise to an appropriate extent. Passive intermittent heat exposure (“heat therapy”) results in elevations in core temperature and changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics, such as cardiac output and shear stress, that are similar to those achieved with exercise and thus may provide an alternative means of improving health. The majority of cardiovascular diseases are characterized by disorders of the arteries, predominantly caused by endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. We assessed the effects of 8 weeks of passive heat therapy on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid and femoral arterial stiffness. Six young, healthy adults participated in 36 sessions of hot water immersion in a 40.5°C bath over the course of 8 weeks (4 or 5 times/week), sufficient to maintain a rectal temperature ≥38.5°C for 60 min. Before and after heat therapy, we assessed brachial artery FMD following a 5-min forearm occlusion using Doppler ultrasonography and dynamic cross-sectional arterial compliance of the common carotid and superficial femoral arteries using Doppler ultrasonography and applanation tonometry to relate changes in artery diameter to changes in blood pressure. Data are mean ± S.E. Heat therapy increased FMD from 5.6 ± 0.5% to 10.6 ± 1.2% (p < 0.01) and femoral compliance from 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.10 ± 0.01 mm2/mmHg (p < 0.05), indicating reduced arterial stiffness. These data indicate that passive heat therapy improves endothelium-dependent dilation and arterial stiffness. Thus, heat therapy may provide a simple and effective means for improving cardiovascular health in various populations.
Counter-Ion Effects on Surfactant Assembly at the Oil-Water Interface of Reverse Emulsions
Presenter: Andrew Carpenter (Chemistry)
Molecular behavior at the oil-water interface has been linked to the behavior of several environmental processes including water remediation, transport of toxic materials across environmental interfaces, and oil spills. Sum frequency vibrational scattering spectroscopy (VSFSS) probes the vibrational spectrum present at the curved interface, making this approach an excellent choice for in situ studies of the interfaces of water droplets dispersed in oil (reverse emulsions). Our work focuses on the assembly of the surfactant, sodium docusate, adsorbed to the oil-water interface of reverse emulsions and how changes in the surfactant counter-ion affect the interface. Surfactant adsorption stabilizes reverse emulsions, and we observed the molecular level effects of the counter-ions on this process. We exchanged the sodium counter-ion for magnesium and potassium, confirming the ion exchange using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the identity of the counter-ion has an effect on the reverse emulsion diameter upon formation. Typical diameters are 200–500 nm, with a trend of Mg > K > Na. VSFSS data indicate that surfactant carbon tails orient themselves similarly, regardless of the associated counter-ions. Although dependent on the counter-ion’s identity, VSFSS results show that the interfacial water structure is altered while the surfactant orientation remains the same.
Center on Diversity and Community GTF
Presenter: Jennifer Chain (Counseling Psychology)
My GTF appointment with the UO Center on Diversity and Community has impacted my personal and professional development.
An Energy Analysis of The Stellar Apartments (WINNER)
Presenter: Annie Chiang (Architecture)
The first Passive House (PH)-certified affordable multifamily housing project in the United States was completed in August 2013. The Stellar Apartments, a 54-unit affordable housing complex west of downtown Eugene, Oregon seeks to provide optimum occupant thermal comfort and energy performance without the commonly associated rent premiums. Each of the complex’s twelve buildings meets the requirements for the Earth Advantage (EA) certification, but one building reaches further, targeting PH certification. The enhanced energy performance is anticipated to reduce the tenants’ monthly financial burden. The PH project served as a pilot test to examine design and construction practices for the client (St. Vincent de Paul), the contractor (Meili Construction), the architect (Bergsund DeLaney Architecture and Planning), and SOLARC (energy and mechanical). St. Vincent de Paul of Lane County and the City of Eugene in cooperation with the UO NetZED Laboratory are evaluating the energy use and indoor environmental quality of the two buildings over a 2-year period. Several research questions were addressed in this study. What is the total energy use of the PH and EA units? In comparison, does the PH unit use less energy than the EA unit, in particular the space heating? What does the energy “pie” of aggregated energy look like? Does the energy use reduction meet the 90% claim? Do carbon dioxide levels in the house meet acceptable recommended levels? Early findings show that occupants of the PH units are using approximately 60–70% less space heating energy than are occupants in the EA units, and there was a lag time of about 1 week before the PH occupants turned on their space heating. The overall energy use pie averages are similar between the PH and EA units; however, occupant behavior indicates strong potential for savings. Early measurements of carbon dioxide levels in both buildings indicate good ventilation. Critical information about working with tenant awareness, energy use, and concerns will be gained as it pertains to PH perceptions in affordable housing communities.
Exploring Variability in Impulsivity and Its Relationship to Adolescent Risk Behaviors (WINNER)
Presenter: Katherine Chrisinger (Counseling Psychology)
Adolescence is the life stage at which maladaptive risk behaviors first emerge. A well-recognized and robust predictor of adolescent risk-taking is the multifaceted construct of impulsivity. Although impulsivity can include different interrelated yet distinct dimensions such as sensation seeking (SS), acting without thinking (AWT), and inability to delay gratification (IDG), most studies examining adolescent risk-taking have focused on a single index of impulsivity. Our goal was to focus on the distinct impulsivity dimensions (SS, AWT, and IDG) and examine their similarities and differences, in terms of both relative stability and change over the course of adolescence and relationships with different risk behaviors (alcohol use, early sexual activity, and unprotected sexual activity). Correlational analyses were conducted using longitudinal data from five annual assessments of a community cohort of 387 adolescents (52% female; baseline age = 10–12 years). Findings revealed both stability and variability in these personality dimensions, suggesting these behaviors are not fixed traits. Some of the dimensions were more strongly associated (SS and AWT), but others were not significantly linked (SS and IDG), suggesting that although inter-related these dimensions have unique characteristics. This finding was further validated by the differential relation between the three dimensions and risk behaviors. SS was not a strong predictor of sexual risk-taking, as compared to AWT and IDG. Alcohol use was better predicted by AWT and SS but not by IDG. Overall, the findings highlight the importance of studying these dimensions individually as predictors of adolescent risk-taking and understanding the sources of variability (developmental and individual) to better inform preventive interventions.
UO Exchange and Sponsored Program
Presenter: Jing Chuang (Law)
The Exchange and Student Programs brings every corner of the world to the University of Oregon. The regular International Student admission brings a diverse demographic to our campus which is different from the diverse demographic brought from the Exchange and Student Programs. The Exchange and Student Programs’ admission process allows us to bring in outstanding foreign students and faculty who would otherwise not have had the opportunity to be at the University of Oregon but through the programs we managed. Our perspectives expand when we are exposed to different cultures and ways of life. We have the opportunity to learn about other cultures and challenge our values and beliefs when given the knowledge of different cultures and ways of living by others. This process fosters mutual respect and builds community where members are not judged simply by their cultures, way of life, values, and beliefs. Improving relations with the surrounding community, increasing a community’s ability to cope with change, and expanding the perspectives and creativity of the community enhances competitiveness in an increasingly global world.
Analysis of Heterogeneity in CO2, H2O, and OH in Centimeter-Sized Obsidian Pyroclasts from Mono Craters, California
Presenter: Giselle Conde (Geology)
Volcanic tephra deposits typically contain inclusions or fragments of quenched melt that preserve pre-eruptive volatile concentrations within the volcanic conduit. The concentrations of CO2, H2O, and OH in obsidian pyroclasts provide information on magma storage depths, and gradients in these volatile species provide information on rates and mechanisms of gas loss (or gain) in magma during ascent. Many studies assume that obsidian pyroclasts are homogeneous at the clast scale and that a spot analysis (or average of several spot analyses) of volatile concentrations is representative of the volatile contents throughout the clast. We measured CO2, H2O, and OH profiles and area maps in six randomly selected obsidian pyroclasts from Mono Craters, California using conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Previous studies of these pyroclasts have focused on spot analyses of volatile concentrations within clast interiors; our study targeted clast rims, bubbles, flow bands, and texturally homogeneous regions of the clasts. The objective was to use the magnitude and spatial distribution of heterogeneities to assess the role of vapor fluxing and to determine timescales of magmatic processes such as bubble growth/resorption and mixing of magma from variable depths. The heterogeneous distribution of CO2 within the pyroclasts suggests that they were assembled within minutes to hours prior to the eruption and sample a range of depths. This picture of a chaotic assembly of a parcel of magma is consistent with previous observations that resorbed bubbles are due to repeated breaking and rewelding of magma as opposed to isobaric cooling in the subsurface.
Childhood (Mediated) Myths and Adult (Virtual) Realities
Presenters: Ashley Cordes (Media Studies), Jenny Tatone (Media Studies), and Jeslyn Lemke (Media Studies)
Throughout history, children’s lyrical rhymes and song have contributed to the way youth come of age and come to make sense of the world. Built into childhood rhymes, games, schoolyard taunts, and media texts are timeless narratives, symbols and mythologies that carry an undercurrent of sexual innuendo and gendered references which deeply affect the identities and ideas youth create and maintain into adulthood. Such childhood nostalgia, then, shapes adult worldviews and interactions, in both an individual and collective process. Thus, this study utilizes rhetorical methods and postmodern interviews to deconstruct rhymes, and the narratives therein, from the 1980’s, shedding light on the ways in which the repetition of such symbol-laden rhymes influence identity formation, postmodern perspective and social interaction. In an increasingly complicated, globalized world of tenuous connections and synchronous communication, we raise research questions around the need to challenge insidious forms of the lyrical stories we played with and absorbed as truths. Examining the symbolic mythology within childhood rhyme in this way will allow for an enhanced understanding of the unquestioned assumptions about the nature of reality (ontology), and how we come to know what we know (epistemology) about one another and about ourselves, particularly in an age wherein we are intrinsically linked to each other by the “global village.” Socially, culturally, and linguistically, rhymes, myth and symbols create and recreate what it means to be human. How did the lyrical and unforgettable stories of 1980’s youth influence and shape the complex, interconnected lives and perspectives of today’s adults?
A Novel Connectomics Approach to Distinguish Neural Networks Activated by Different Experiences
Presenter: Leah DeBlander (Biology)
The amygdala is a structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In humans, abnormal amygdala activity is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. In rodents, amygdala lesions prevent recall of aversive memories and formation of new ones. Of particular importance to the formation of emotionally charged associative memories is the basolateral amygdala (BLA), where inputs from multiple brain regions, each representing a distinct component of an experience, converge. We chose a novel connectomics approach to investigate how Pavlovian fear conditioning, a type of associative learning where a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an aversive one, is encoded in the BLA. In general, strategies for encoding information in the brain can be divided into two extremes. In the deterministic strategy, one neuron is activated by only one stimulus, and information about that stimulus is conveyed when the neuron is active. In the distributed strategy, an entire neural population responds to a wide range of stimuli, and information about a particular stimulus is conveyed in the patterns of neural activity across the population. In this study, active neural populations are defined by their expression of an activity-dependent transgene and are characterized by their inputs, size, and cell-type-specific content. We compared these characteristics in neural populations activated by fear conditioning, neutral stimuli, and pseudo-conditioning, a type of fear conditioning where the neutral stimulus is not associated with the aversive one. Preliminary results support a deterministic encoding strategy and could inform more focused therapeutic targets for treating amygdala dysfunction.
Modifications to Toxic CUG RNAs Induce Structural Stability
Presenter: Elaine deLorimier (Chemistry)
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common adult-onset form of muscular dystrophy. DM1 is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the expression of long RNAs containing CUG repeat sequences. Muscleblind-like1 (MBNL1) is a protein that is sequestered to CUG repeats when they are expressed. When MBNL1 is sequestered to CUG repeats, it is unable to perform its normal function, which is to regulate a process know as alternative splicing. During pre-mRNA processing, the spliceosome removes intronic sequences and stitches together exons to produce mRNA. Cellular signals, such as MBNL1, tell the spliceosome when to include or exclude certain exons. DM1 patients have misregulated alternative splicing that results in their symptoms. Therefore, it is important to understand the MBNL1-CUG repeat interaction to develop strategies to release MBNL1 in DM1 patients. We found that CUG repeats containing the modified nucleic acid pseudouridine (Ψ) have more stable structures; MBNL1 is less able to interact with the stabilized RNA. The crystal structure and molecular dynamics data indicate that Ψ forms a water molecule bridge, which could contribute to structural stability. When we expressed CUG repeats in our cell culture system, we found misregulated exon inclusion of MBNL1-regulated transcripts. CUG repeats containing Ψ do not have this effect in cell culture. Zebrafish embryos injected with CUG repeat RNA develop symptoms relating to muscles, e.g., a reduced ability to coil their tails. When Ψ is incorporated in place of uridine in these repeats, the fish do not develop these symptoms.
A Quantitative Methodology for the Evaluation of Thermal Bridges in Buildings
Presenter: Ryan Dirks (Architecture)
Green design and energy efficiency are now ubiquitous terms in the design and construction industry, yet the energy performance of occupied buildings in real-world conditions is poorly documented. A large number of buildings currently being built use substantially more energy than was predicted in the design phase,. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that designers do not adequately understand the contribution of thermal bridging through insulation to the overall energy use in a building. This study proposes a methodology that uses the parametric design program to quantitatively analyze infrared images for the degree of thermal bridging in a wall assembly. The end result will be a user-friendly tool that architects can use to study the relative energy performance of buildings in the field, provided a better understanding of the energy efficiency of building designs.
Brewing Redevelopment: Evaluating the Rise of Fermentation Districts
Presenter: Aniko Drlik-Muehleck (Community and Regional Planning)
The conversion of old industrial and warehouse districts to upscale housing and commercial developments has been lauded by some as economic development and condemned by others as gentrification. In Oregon, craft breweries, wineries, and other fermented beverage businesses have dominated some industrial redevelopments, creating fermentation districts. Using the Whiteaker neighborhood in Eugene, Oregon as a case study, this research considers the land use, social, and economic impacts of rapidly developing fermentation businesses. Compared with redevelopments driven by large corporate developers and government incentives, the transformation of the Whiteaker by small-scale entrepreneurs offers some insight into a different, potentially less socially disruptive form of redevelopment.
Regional Governance: Local Planning and Development Implications
Presenter: Stephen Dobrinich (Community and Regional Planning)
While regional planning agencies can be found across the country, there are very few multi-purpose, multicounty government agencies with broad planning powers –e.g. Portland Metro, which derives authority from the State of Oregon. Without these strong state mandates for regional planning, most metropolitan areas are forced to take a bottom-up approach to regional governance. This is reflected in the case study of Denver, Colorado where local leaders have signed a formal agreement –the Mile High Compact- to coordinate regional planning and growth management across jurisdictional boundaries. To do this, a series of Metro Vision Plans, which outline approaches to growth management, were developed by the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG). One approach, the designation of ‘urban centers’ –areas slated to develop as dense nodes of mixed-use development, will be explored extensively as a part of this research project. This will take place in an effort to explain how and to what extent regional planning influences local programs and policies regarding urban centers. This study will shed light on the extent to which efforts emphasizing urban centers in the Denver Metropolitan Area are the result of regional planning efforts, local planning initiatives, or other outside forces -e.g. transportation incentives, market forces, political support or opposition, etc.
Alternative Empiricisms in William James and Gilles Deleuze
Presenter: Russell Duvernoy (Philosophy)
Traditionally, empiricism is understood as an epistemological position that argues that all of our knowledge is derived from our sense experience, i.e., our ideas originate in our impressions. Also traditionally, such a view has tended toward a deflationary stance toward the viability of metaphysical thought. From Hume to Carnap, the story goes, solid, rigorous empiricism exposes the emptiness of metaphysical speculation. However, both William James and Gilles Deleuze affirm their own projects as versions of “superior,” “radical,” or “transcendental” empiricism while performing varieties of speculation that exceed the narrowly empirical. Both James and Deleuze, though in different ways, also seek to maintain a possibility of empiricism while interrogating the assumption of a subject/object ontology. My project begins with an attempt to simply make sense of these unorthodox characterizations. How is it possible to be an empiricist while questioning the common-sense notion of subjects and objects upon which common conceptions of experience are built? Although such a conceptual puzzle holds some inherent interest for the philosopher, my ultimate concern is its larger implications. Paying close attention to this story shifts our conception of the proper relationship between the speculative and the empirical, such that these two domains are no longer separate and competing. Rather than declaiming the importance or viability of metaphysical speculation, Deleuze and James show us its importance and fecundity and offer a possibility of its performance in a nondogmatic, i.e., empirical, key.
Cost Reduction in Casting and Molding of Large Fossil Specimens
Presenter: Meaghan Emery (Geology)
The molding and casting materials used to recreate fossil specimens are expensive and can cost thousands of dollars when used on large specimens. I created replicas of several University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History specimens for the Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, including the skull and rostrum of Cophecetus, an extinct whale. To minimize cost, I experimented with several cost-reduction strategies in the fossil molding process, including ways of creating airspace and directing liquid flow without compromising replica realism. I used clay, cardboard, and metal structures to create terraced molds and casts, which greatly reduced materials costs for the project. This approach also reduced the weight of the resulting casts, which is particularly beneficial for large and irregularly shaped specimens that would otherwise require specially constructed mounts.
HPC Application Energy Measurement and Optimization
Presenter: Amir Farzad (Computer and Information Science)
Energy efficiency is one of the central issues for high-performance computing (HPC). Making computation more energy efficient is important for various reasons from saving money to decreasing the environmental impacts of super computers to increasing battery life in mobile devices. In this research, we collaborated with a private company (RNET Technologies, Inc.) and have been working on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to perform “fine-grain” monitoring of power consumption of computer software. The current power monitoring tools can measure the power consumption of the programs on only coarse-grain granularity, which is generally on the order of seconds and measures the aggregate power of the entire system. This limitation does not practically allow monitoring of the details of power consumption by the computation algorithms. In this project, we used newly designed hardware and software tools to monitor fine-grain component-level power consumption. This platform can be added to the existing HPC units. The software application programming interface (API) of this power monitoring unit allows the application developer to add the power monitoring functions in benchmark programs. We developed an instrumentation toolkit that adds the power monitoring API setup and measurement functions automatically in the benchmark source code at compile time. We collected detailed power information for several open-source DOE application benchmarks, including the Mantevo benchmark suite. We analyzed both the performance and power characteristics of these benchmark applications to evaluate correlations between the performance characteristics of significant kernels in these applications and the fine-grain power measurements.
Presenter: Brian Gearin (Educational Leadership)
The TrackTown USA project is a multidimensional education program designed to improve fitness, mathematics achievement, and executive function in fourth and fifth grade students. When finished, the project will include a mobile activity tracker, an application-based video game, and an instructional unit that is driven by these technological components. Although the product is still under development, theoretical research supporting the viability of the project has been completed. One of the surprising findings is that moderate physical activity for bouts of 20 to 40 minutes seems to improve executive function (i.e., the ability to plan and achieve a goal), and specific physical activity interventions seem to improve math achievement. Our next challenge is to determine how to make TrackTown USA as enjoyable as possible for children without compromising the product’s educational and fitness effectiveness. To achieve this goal, researchers at the University of Oregon Center on Teaching and Learning are collaborating with the Department of Physiology, a local video game developer Thought-Cycle, and the Institute of Play, a non-profit organization based in New York that promotes the use of games in secondary schools. We are also developing a platform called “Learning Arcade,” where TrackTown USA and other educational products will be marketed.
Computational Studies of Methylglyoxal at the Air-Water Interface
Presenter: Brittany Gordon (Chemistry)
The aqueous phase processing of atmospheric α-dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MG) could constitute an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MG is semivolatile so it can be partitioned into the aqueous phase, where it can be hydrated at the carbonyl carbon to form diols and tetrols. These hydration states can subsequently undergo oxidization and oligomerization reactions to form higher molecular weight species and thereby contribute to SOA growth. In bulk solutions, the diol and tetrol exist in a 60:40 ratio with negligible amounts of unhydrated MG. However, the hydration state of MG at the air-water interface is currently not known. Because of the high surface area to volume ratio of aerosols, molecules at the interface greatly affect aerosol properties. A better picture of the surface behavior of MG and its reaction products may aid in further understanding the ultimate fate of MG within aqueous aerosols and its SOA forming potential. We are using a combination of vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) and computational chemistry to investigate the hydration state and behavior of aqueous MG at the air-water interface. Here, we report our computational results from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and density functional theory calculations of MG surface adsorption at the air-water interface. Together, the MD simulations and calculated VSF spectra suggest that the main species at the surface is the diol and that the diol to tetrol ratio is enhanced at the interface.
Carex nudata (torrent sedge): an ecosystem engineer facilitating river restoration (WINNER)
Presenter: Matthew Goslin (Geography)
Carex nudata (“torrent sedge”), a native plant that occurs in rivers throughout Oregon and California, may play the role of an ecosystem engineer capable of altering its environment in rivers where it is abundant. In the Middle Fork of the John Day River, C. nudata has exploded across the landscape following the removal of cattle grazing in the late 1990s. C. nudata forms fringes along the edges of the low flow channel and may grow as islands within the river. C. nudata appears to be altering channel morphology, enhancing river complexity in ways that facilitate restoration goals. My research pursues both directions of the plant-river relationship: 1) how does river environment drive the distribution of C. nudata? and 2) how does C. nudata then alter the morphology of a river. I have pursued the first question through basin-wide surveys – from headwaters to mouth – in two representative basins. Preliminary results suggest that stream power is a critical driver of C. nudata distribution. For the second question, I have employed multiple methods to investigate changes in channel morphology in the Middle Fork John Day River relative to C. nudata distribution patterns. Preliminary results suggest that C. nudata stablizes the boundaries of the low flow channel while allowing continued erosion of the cut banks defining the high flow channel. This process offers a mechanism that could facilitate the formation of complex channels with multiple threads and side channels. Such features present key habitats for aquatic species and are congruous with river restoration goals.
Synthetic MBNL1 Design: Creating a Higher Activity RNA Binding Protein
Presenter: Melissa Hale (Chemistry)
Myotonic dystropy type 1 (DM1) is the most common form of adult muscular dystrophy and is characterized by symptoms including myotonia and heart abnormalities. DM1 is caused by a CTG repeat expansion in the 3′-untranslated region of the DMPK gene. When transcribed into CUG RNA, these repeats sequester the alternative splicing factor muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1), leading to mis-splicing events responsible for patients’ symptoms. MBNL1 acts as a splicing enhancer or repressor by promoting both exon inclusion and exclusion events. MBNL1 contains four zinc finger (ZF) RNA binding motifs; the first two ZFs fold into one domain (ZF1-2), and the second set of ZFs fold into another (ZF3-4) such that the protein contains two distinct RNA binding domains. However, it the ZF pairs do not have equivalent splicing functions for all MBNL1-regulated splicing events, and the ZF1-2 domain binds with higher affinity to several RNA substrates than does the ZF3-4 pair. This observation raises a new question regarding MBNL1 function: Can we design a synthetic MBNL1 protein with increased affinity for its RNA targets resulting in increased splicing activity of the protein? To answer this question, I have engineered 1) an MBNL1 in which the ZF3-4 domain is replaced with the ZF1-2 domain to create a double MBNL1(1,2–1,2) and 2) a double MBNL1(3,4–3,4) in which the ZF1-2 domain is replaced with the ZF3-4 domain. The activity of these constructs is being tested using several methods, including a cellular splicing assay and in vitro biochemical techniques.
Race and Agency in the Music of Watanabe’s Samurai Champloo
Presenter: Sabra Harris (Folklore)
The way that the Japanese anime series Samurai Champloo combines iconic western elements such as hip-hop with iconic Japanese themes such as samurai explores complex themes of race and identity far more involved than the simple, single homogenous state often portrayed. Director Shinichirō Watanabe emphasizes Japanese culture as a thing not separate from foreign culture. He commissioned Japanese rap and hip-hop artists Nujabes, DJ Tsutchie, and Force of Nature and the American expat artist Fat Jon to provide the soundtracks of the 26-episode series. The show therefore participates in a larger, distinctive dialogue concerning the agency of alternative media. Hip-hop and rap express questions of race and individualism that are essential for understanding the significance of these ideas in Samurai Champloo and how hip-hip and rap shape the underlying message of agency and individualism in the characters of the show. The inclusion of Okinawan and Ainu music, in collaboration with prominent indigenous artists such as Oki Kanō, Umeko Ando, and Ikue Asazaki, reveals an even deeper exploration of race inside and outside the borders of Japan.
Wild About Going Outside: Communication Strategies that Stick Presenter:
Presenter: Lori Howell
We all need time outside. A lack of exposure to nature is contributing to physical and mental health problems, such as attention disorders, depression, diabetes, and obesity. Yet, there is little research into which communication strategies are successful in motivating urban residents to get outside and enjoy nature.
To raise awareness and test messages that stick, I will survey visitors to Southwest Community Center in Portland, Oregon, about their behaviors and attitudes. Using Grunig’s Situational Theory, asserting that respondents can be classified depending on their participation outdoors—from nonpublics to active publics—I am tailoring components of a British public nature campaign called “Project Wild Thing” (http://projectwildthing.com), for delivery in summer 2015 through Portland Parks and Recreation.
Investigating the Structural Requirements of Non-Muscle Myosin II Regulation
Presenter: Justin Hotter (Biology)
Non-Muscle Myosin II (NMII) is a molecular motor required for cell movement and proliferation. NMII is composed of a globular “head” domain that carries out NMII motor function, and a long regulatory “tail” domain that assembles into a rigid “coiled-coil” structure. To function, NMII molecules assemble into filaments; this filament-assembly process is regulated via the folding of NMII into an inhibited, paperclip-like conformation, which renders it incapable of forming filaments. The coiled-coil tail must fold back on itself nearly 180˚ to achieve this inhibited conformation. Canonically, coiled-coil domains are rigid structures composed of repeating amino acid moieties, termed “heptad repeats”, and such folding is thought to occur via discrete “hinge regions” in the heavy chains’ extensive coiled-coil domain. As coiled-coil domains are thought to be rigid, the source of such severe bending in the NMII molecule is of great research interest. While previous research has identified the approximate locations of these hinges within the protein, previous research assumed that these hinges derive from single amino acid deviations from the coiled-coil’s heptad repeat structure. These so-called “skip residues” were thought to sufficiently disrupt the coiled-coil structure of tail domain so as to allow the rod to bend back on itself. My research built upon previous research in our lab to challenge the idea that the hinges are formed from single amino acid disruptions of the heptad repeat, instead arguing that several amino acid disruptions are necessary for hinge formation, and I will present biochemical evidence supporting my hypothesis.
Looking for the Heart in the Brain: Neuroimaging Analyses of Life-Span Differences in Charitable Giving (WINNER)
Presenter: Jason Hubbard (Psychology)
Economists distinguish “pure altruism” (i.e., a giver is motived by an increase in the utility of the recipient) from “impure altruism” (i.e., a giver is motivated by an increase in utility to him/herself, such as through an increase in reputation). Based on earlier work examining the neural correlates of charitable behavior (e.g., Harbaugh, Mayr, & Burghart, 2007) we explored whether well-documented life-span increases in giving can be attributed to either pure or impure altruism. Participants (N=80, age 18–67, M = 44.2) performed a charitable giving task while undergoing fMRI, where giving was either private or—to elicit impure motives—observed by others. In separate runs, participants also passively witnessed transactions involving money to either themselves or charities. We found an increase in giving with age (r=.40, p <.001) and when observed (17% increase, p < .001). However there was no trace of an interaction between these two variables—a finding that is inconsistent with an increased impure motive across the life span. In line with our previous result regarding neural correlates of pure altruism, activity in reward- and decision-related regions, including anterior cingulate, ventral striatum (vSTR), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and posterior cingulate during mandatory transfers predicted subsequent voluntary giving. Furthermore, giving-related brain activity correlated with age in overlapping regions of vmPFC and vSTR. These results suggest that, (a) consistent with the pure altruism motive, neural valuation responses can reflect the utility of others, and (b) life-span changes in charitable giving are due to the strengthening of this pure altruistic motive.
Advanced Characterization of Aqueous Inorganic Nanoscale Clusters
Presenter: Milton Jackson, Jr. (Chemistry)
We qualitatively investigated the chemical speciation and kinetics of flat-Al13(OH)12(H2O)24(NO3)15 dissolved in alcoholic solutions. Upon immediate dissolution of flat-Al13(OH)12(H2O)24(NO3)15 in methanol, dynamic light scattering reveals the existence of aluminum-based nanoparticles ranging from approximately 6 to 20 nm in radius. The size of the nanoparticles derived from Al13(OH)12(H2O)2415+ can be tuned to specific sizes depending on the Al3+ concentration, water:alcohol ratio, and the dielectric constant of the solvent system. However, the nanoparticles do not persist in alcoholic solutions, probably because of the low zeta potential value (<5 mV). Raman spectroscopy reveals that the formation of methyl nitrate (CH3NO3, C–O stretch at 824 cm-1) in solution also plays a significant role in facilitating the growth and breakdown of aluminum nanoparticles. The existence of these aluminum nanoparticles in a nonaqueous medium may have a significant environmental impact on how complex alumina species may form in waste streams and other sources of pollution.
Towards Graph Evolution Analysis
Presenter: Soheil Jamshidi (Computer and Information Science)
The more social networks grow, the more they become informative and the more effort is needed to understand them and keep up with the changes made in their structure and content. The dynamic nature of social networks and the large scale of related data require efficient ways of keeping track of changes to allow appropriate responses to events. Looking at a large graph in different time snapshots and analyzing it to find relevant changes and track specific information regarding size and speed is no longer a trivial task. The first step this research involves investigation of different characteristics of a graph. The study will focus on different levels of abstraction starting from individual nodes to groups of related nodes (e.g., communities). Based on the observations from the first step, the behavior of the graph will be explored in terms of communities and the main characteristics and most important elements of a community. By leveraging these findings, we will have fundamental tools needed to propose an efficient way to track special events or information within a graph during its evolution.
Does This Mess Make Us Creative? – Physical Environment, Embodied Cognition and Group Creativity
Presenter: Chanhyo Jeong (Management)
We are testing one of the old perceptions about creativity and work space, i.e., that creative people have a disorganized work environment. Abrahamson defined disorganization as “a disorderly accumulation of varied entities,” and other research has shown that highly creative people are more sensitive to a stimulus from the environment. Without adequate understanding, we design our work environments based on intuition and anecdotal evidence. Although Vohs, Redden, and Rahinel found a causal link between clutter and divergent thinking ability on the individual level, their research covered neither group creativity nor convergent thinking. We suspect that the influence of the environment must be different depending on the kind of creative task types. To explain the environmental effect on creativity, we will use Lakoff and Johnson’s theory of embodied cognition and Baumeister et al.’s theory of ego depletion. Our brain does not always make a distinction between physical and cognitive activity, and tactile experience can easily shape our abstract cognition. Similarly, experiencing physical disorganization might help us think beyond the existing mental categorizations of abstract ideas. We hypothesize that being surrounded by disorganization will activate the alleviation of controlled self. We predict that it will take less time for a group in a disorganized environment to complete creativity tasks and that people in a disorganized space will reach a consensus for a convergent thinking task more quickly because a disorganized environment will hinder a group’s ability (because of ego depletion) to carefully evaluate each option.
Post-colonial environmental history of land-use and water quality in Coos Bay Estuary, Oregon Coast Range
Presenter: Geoffrey Johnson (Geography)
Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable ecosystems which may be affected by changes in their rivers or continental shelf due to tidal cycles. Moreover, estuaries are on the forefront of concerns over current and future climate change since rising sea and changing weather patterns level may impose altered spatial boundaries and coastal geomorphology. During the last century human impacts from industrial and agricultural development have pushed close to waterways leading to altered ecosystem function and pollution. Dissolved oxygen in aquatic systems is a critical component of habitat and ecosystem function. In the face of land-use and cover change, dissolved oxygen has become an important measure of water quality which leaves geochemical and biological proxies in sedimentary sequences. Environmental history recorded in sediments is a lense through which to understand landscape change and is important for contextualizing natural and anthropogenic ecological variability over time. In April 2014, we collected four sediment cores from two locations in the Coos Bay Estuary which span the the period from before 1900 to the present. We have used pollen records of land-use and cover change in the watershed of Coos Bay and the surrounding area in conjunction with the history of development in Coos County. We present this history alongside x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy-derived geochemical analysis to track proxies of dissolved oxygen and development-related pollution in this salt-wedge estuary.
Investigating the Roles of the Phosphatase PP1-87b in Drosophila Neuroblast Polarity Establishment
Presenter: Kimberly Jones (Biology)
The distribution of proteins to different regions of a cell for specific functions or fates is called cell polarity. Establishment of polarity is regulated by addition or removal of phosphate groups by kinases and phosphatases, respectively. Polarity in the Drosophila neuroblast (neural stem cell) is regulated by the localization of the Par complex proteins to the apical cortex: Bazooka (Baz) is localized first followed by the complex of Par6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). Fate determinant proteins such as Miranda (Mira) are then excluded from the apical cortex by aPKC phosphorylation. Although the role of kinases is well understood, the role of phosphatases has yet to be fully elucidated. We recently discovered a role for the phosphatase PP1-87b in neuroblast polarity establishment. Loss of PP1-87b leads to a mislocalization of aPKC and Par6 to the cytoplasm and a corresponding mislocalization of Mira to the cortex and mitotic spindle, although Baz remains apical. Previous work has revealed that loss of a cortical polarity protein Scribble (Scrib) gives the same Mira phenotype but has an apically localized Par complex. We tested neuroblasts without PP1-87b and found that Scrib is also mislocalized to the cytoplasm. With this data, we propose a model whereby PP1-87b regulates neuroblast polarity establishment through multiple pathways to promote (1) proper apical localization of the Par6/aPKC complex and (2) proper basal localization of Mira, at least in part through localization of Scrib.
Game Design for Outdoor Engagement
Alicia Kristen, (Environmental Studies & Folklore)
Imagine if the 5.9 billion years worth of hours gamers have spent playing World of Warcrarft were instead spent adventuring in our real world, learning local secrets and facing real challenges, what feats could young adult gamers accomplish? Empowered by research in effective game design and place-based education curriculum development, I have designed a game that uses technology to hook young adults into a series of quests that get them outdoors, building the knowledge and skills needed to take action in their communities. The game includes both an epic plot that players can shape through their engagement as well as a framework for players to create their own content based on what they find important in their communities. Come by and learn if you are an Explorer, Shapeshifter, Tracker, or more and get a 15-minute quest that you can do any day to scientifically improve your well-being and connection to place.
Indeterminacy: What is it and How Does it Affect Transfer?
Presenter: Joshua Kahn (Educational Leadership)
We introduce and describe the construct of indeterminacy for the adult transfer community. In short, indeterminacy characterizes a type of stimulus-response relationship in which the stimulus evokes a response that requires secondary and/or ongoing judgments as opposed to a stimulus that evokes a straight-forward, predetermined response. We began with a review of transfer literature’s neglect of a systematic study of the construct, followed by a review of extant literature from different disciplines to help define indeterminacy and distinguish it from uncertainty and ambiguity. We generated testable hypotheses based on the literature review, and experimental evidence indicates that indeterminacy diminishes transfer and merits strong consideration when measuring and designing training for adult learners.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Regulates Cardiac Trabeculation through Bmp10 (WINNER)
Presenter: Kate Karfilis (Biology)
The development of the heart is a complex, multistep process that begins very early in embryogenesis. Major morphological rearrangements are required to turn a simple tube-like structure into a multichambered functional organ capable of supporting embryo growth. This process of transformation requires coordinated cellular growth and communication by secreted growth factors. Defects in this complex process can result in severe morphological abnormalities in the heart and can lead to congenital diseases or birth defects. The development of the muscular wall of the heart is one of several vital processes that requires complex signaling between two cell types, the endocardium and the myocardium. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is believed to play a vital signaling role during this stage, but its exact function has remained undefined because of limitations of the genetic tools available to study this process. Recently developed specific inhibitors signaling pathways provide a platform to understand the role of VEGF in embryonic heart development. Loss of VEGF signaling, via chemical inhibition of VEGFR2, results in dramatic morphological defects to the developing cardiac trabeculae in the developing ventricle. I identified several genes that were misexpressed upon loss of VEGF signaling, in particular Bmp10. Preliminary data suggest that Bmp10 expression rapidly decreases upon VEGF inhibition, and Bmp10 activity, as measured by phosphorylated SMAD staining, is also decreased, primarily in the ventricular endocardium. These results suggest that VEGF signaling may direct the development of cardiac trabeculae via regulated expression of Bmp10.
Can Nonprofits Really Be “Business-Like?”
Presenter: Eren Kavvas (Nonprofit Management)
Theoretically, the nonprofit sector flourishes when given access to market mechanisms. However, in a competitive marketplace that values high levels of efficiency, market mechanisms may unequally affect small and large (as defined by asset size) nonprofit organizations because under marketization consumers select the nonprofit organizations that maximizes their interests, possibly weighing more heavily on established, larger organizations. This study focuses on the consumer interest of business sustainability. If smaller nonprofits are inherently less sustainable and therefore less competitive in the marketplace, they may falter under marketization, which is unfortunate because smaller, local nonprofits tend to better address salient needs in their communities. To analyze the competitiveness of smaller organizations under the marketization of the nonprofit sector, U.S. Internal Revenue Service tax data were used to inform research on characteristics of sustainable business choices, such as fundraising revenue and number of employees. By comparing a linear ordinary least squares regression that measures the relationship between sustainability variables and asset size with the same regression but with the logarithm of asset size, we deduced the effect of asset size on sustainability based on the R2 value. This simple model provides compelling evidence for the practicality of marketization in the nonprofit sector for small organizations. If the logarithm is a much better judge of the relationship, then there may be no place for small nonprofits in the marketplace. Although marketization may be a potent tool, this analysis informs possible outcomes of this process for small nonprofit organizations and the communities they serve.
RBFOX1 Modulation of MBNL1 Regulated Splicing Events
Presenter: Sunny Ketchum (Chemistry)
Alternative splicing of RNA increases the coding potential of genes by allowing multiple isoforms to be expressed from one sequence. Splicing factors, such as muscleblind-like1 (MBNL1) regulate this process to ensure that specific isoforms are expressed in appropriate tissues and developmental stages. MBNL1-regulated splicing events have a wide variety of sensitivities and respond differently to changes in MBNL1 concentration. Some MBNL1-regulated events can also be regulated by the splicing factor RNA binding protein, fox-1 homolog (RBFOX1). To gain insight into the effects of RBFOX1 on MBNL1-regulated splicing, we used an inducible system in human embryonic kidney 293 cells to control the levels of MBNL1 and created dose-response curves with and without RBFOX1 present in the cells. To test whether the change in MBNL1 dose-response was due to RBFOX1 binding, the RBFOX1 binding sites in the insulin receptor (INSR) and nuclear factor I/X (NFIX) mini-gene splicing reporters were mutated to prevent binding. We found that the presence of RBFOX1 decreased the range of MBNL1 activity for the INSR and NFIX mini-gene splicing reporters and that this dampening effect was dependent on RBFOX1 binding to the RNA.
A Study on the Neolithic Agricultural Economies and its Development at Huizui Site, Yiluo River Valley Region, China
Presenter: Ha Beom Kim (Anthropology)
Archaeobotanical data from the Middle to Late Neolithic Chinese occupations (ca. 3500–2000 B.C.) at the Huizui site in the Yiluo Valley along the middle reach of the Yellow River as a case study were used to explore changes in agricultural plant use over time in the Yiluo Valley region. The analysis confirms that changing plant use patterns at Huizui were a part of larger agricultural development in the Yiluo Valley. Inhabitants at the Huizui site throughout the Middle and Late Neolithic periods relied heavily on millet farming for their primary subsistence but began to include a broader range of crops, such as wheat and rice, toward the Late Neolithic period. Regression analysis of millet crops and weeds and previous morphological studies of archaeological millet remains at Huizui suggest a plausible hypothesis: inhabitants at Huizui started to engage in importation of processed crop goods as consumers toward the Late Neolithic Period. This hypothesis highlights the dynamics of agricultural development in the Yiluo Valley during the Middle and Late Neolithic periods. In ongoing research, the patterns of early agricultural plant use in north-central China will be compared with those of neighboring regions of East Asia. For this research, preliminarily data from my summer internship at the Korea Institute of Archaeology and Environment at the Korea University will also be presented.
Study of Vibrational Excitation in Carbon Nanotube Quantum Dots with helium-free Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Presenter: Dmitry Kislitsyn (Chemistry)
Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) are molecules that are considered among the top candidates for future molecular electronics that move beyond the limits of current silicon-based microelectronics. Interest in CNTs is derived from their unique variability and unusual physical properties. For example, symmetry of CNT (chirality) affects whether the CNT is metallic or semiconducting. To study such properties of individual molecules special instrumentation is required because of the demanding requirements for sensitivity and noise cancelation. The Nazin group at UO built an instrument that utilizes the quantum tunneling effect to examine a nano-object by approaching it with a sharp metallic tip (scanning tunneling microscope, STM). Using an unique STM design based on a closed-cycle cryostat allows very detailed and careful spectroscopic investigation of CNTs. I present the first results that we achieved in this direction. In this experiment we positioned individual CNTs on the gold substrate and studied CNT behavior in the presence of controlled environmental disorder (such as gold atomic steps). We applied a differential conductance technique to obtain spectroscopic maps with sub-nanometer resolution. We observed well-defined localized electronic states (including intra-nanotube quantum dots) that allow us to discover localization-enhanced electron-phonon interaction revealed as a sequence of vibrational side-peaks at each electronic level. These vibrations suggest rippling distortion and dimerization of carbon atoms on the CNT surface. Our findings shed light on how CNT’s electronic properties are affected by environment which helps to understand their performance as electronic elements.
Christian Nationalism and Support for Nationalistic Violence
Presenter: Stephanie Kramer (Psychology)
We examined the relationship between Christian nationalism in the United States (i.e., the belief that the United States was founded by Christians and for Christians and that policy decisions should therefore be made based on the beliefs and preferences of this contingent) and support for nationalistic violence. Christian nationalism predicted greater support for both personal and coalitional violence (k = 2; N = 231). Christian nationalists reported more willingness to personally, physically fight others who insulted the United States. They also expressed greater support for historically unpopular military engagements: the Bay of Pigs invasion, the Vietnam War, and the most recent Iraq War. These relationships held even after controlling for political affiliation and other obvious potential confounds. Christian nationalism—and religious nationalism more generally—may serve to imbue national missions with supernatural authority and sanctioning, making one’s country a religious representative participating in a divine mission.
Oppositions Reconciled: Marcel Duchamp at the Julien Levy Gallery, 1944 Imagery of Chess Exhibition
Presenter: Meredith Lancaster (Architecture)
Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968) is considered one of the most revolutionary artists of the twentieth century. Scholars in many fields have addressed Duchamp’s thematic use of chess. In the art world, scholars have explored the role of chess in Duchamp’s oeuvre. Within the chess world, scholars have focused on specific game strategies to understand Duchamp without necessarily discussing the connection between chess and his art. However, despite much excellent work on themes such as his avant-garde art and his chess play, scholars examining the role of chess in the oeuvre of Duchamp have yet fully explored the importance of his role as advisor and curator and how these roles allowed an opportunity to reconcile his passions: art and chess. Without such an understanding, we are left with an inadequate analysis that creates the condition for an underdeveloped aspect of Duchamp that would allow for a better comprehension of him and his works. My thesis will remedy this gap in the current scholarship by examining the Imagery of Chess (December 12, 1944–February 1945), curated by Duchamp, in detail by contextualizing it in terms of Duchamp’s own artistic career by tracing and analyzing the role of chess throughout. I will also examine Duchamp’s understated but important work as art advisor, curator, and artist and how these various roles influenced and affected the art world with a focus on the Julien Levy Gallery and his relationship with the owner. An examination of Duchamp’s connections with the professional chess world, particularly in New York City from 1915 to 1945, will provide another avenue through which to analyze his attempts to merge his two obsessions. Through his roles as art advisor, curator, contributor, and referee, Duchamp finally successfully reconciled these two oppositions: art and chess.
Structural Optimization in Furniture Making
Presenter: Luke Larsen
A design process that cycles through iterative alternatives allows for incremental improvement. Within the constraining parameters of any given design space there exists a field of potential solutions. This project employ evolutionary algorithms to explore structural optimization at the furniture making scale. Digital models, hand calculations, and break testing are used to inform design decisions. Generative scripts are employed to make a series of parametrically related discrete members that form a field of formal possibilities. Input parameters are constrained to lie within the confines of the trestle table structural typology. A “rigged” finite element analysis model is leveraged to iteratively and adaptively test the goodness of fit (magnitude of member forces) of the specific solutions within the prescribed field. After exporting these results member sizes, shapes, and materials are selected through a more analogue process of quickly testing and documenting individual member utilizations. A design dialogue ensues between the material and the formal optimizations. Representative individual iterations are selected for validation through hand calculations and break testing. The results from this design method are then translated into a built interpretation of the trestle table. The interrelationship between the performative feedback of digital optimization tools and the process of making is explored. Opportunities, challenges, and pitfalls are documented and evaluated. The design results are compared with discrete examples of traditional trestle tables. These unselfconscious designs have been iteratively honed through the passage of generations. Vernacular response is evaluated as a repository of evolutionary optimization.
Speaking Well of the Dead: Mapping Human Values
Presenter: Jacob Levernier (Psychology)
What people say about the dead tells us a great deal about their values. Given a brief space to summarize the entire life of a deceased relative or friend, the authors of obituaries may be expected to signal as concisely and strikingly as possible to their readers which of the most important, communally-accepted values the deceased manifested. Using data-mining techniques, small-scale work to date (N≈150 obituaries per city) has indicated differences in the trait descriptors that are most commonly applied to the deceased, both within communities (especially between men and women) and across communities (e.g., comparing Flint, MI, a city marked by industrial disinvestment in the recent past; and Eugene, OR, a university- and sports-centered city). Current work compares 13,000 lay-authored obituaries related to the University of Oregon with a sample of professionally-written entries from The New York Times, the national paper of record. Primary value-clusters include sports, learning, surgency, art, martial values, research, family, and business. Using network graphing and related analyses, we have found evidence for distinct clusters of values in different communities across the country, as well as the extent to which different values are associated with different generations, the extent to which different values are associated with men and women, and the extent to which different values are geographically isolated.
Identifying Optimization Opportunities and Code Tuning Enhancements in GPGPU Architectures
Presenter: Robert Lim (Computer and Information Science)
Tuning codes for general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) architectures is challenging because few performance tools can pinpoint the exact causes of execution bottlenecks. Various optimization techniques can be applied, such as vector packing and loop unrolling; however, it is not apparent which combinations of optimizations will yield the best performance. Although profiling applications reveal execution behavior with a particular architecture, the abundance of collected information can overwhelm the user. Performance counters provide cumulative values but do not attribute events to code regions, which makes it difficult to identify performance hot spots. This research focuses on identifying optimization opportunities and code tuning enhancements in GPGPU architectures. The first phase generates CUDA executables with parallel thread execution (PTX) intermediate representation and source code location information and applies code optimizations such as regularization, binning, and tiling/data reuse. The second phase consists of static and dynamic analyses. Static analysis is performed on the binary executable after PTX code generation, which allows precise performance modeling because optimizations may have taken place during compilation. Dynamic analysis collects performance information, including program counter sampling, which estimates central processing unit time and memory accesses, and hardware counter sampling, which provides the number of occurrences for events such as warp/thread occupancy and cache hits/misses. The final phase attributes source code location with performance counter information and identifies whether hardware resources are effectively utilized and whether performance benefits can be realized. The goal of this research is to increase productivity in writing codes for GPUs and to identify bottlenecks and optimization opportunities.
The Intergenerational Continuity of Child Maltreatment: A Proposed Examination of Risk Factors and Parenting Practices
Presenter: Jessica Linscott (Counseling Psychology)
The intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment poses a major public health concern for society. Analyzing longitudinal data from a unique, high-risk sample—young women with a history of child maltreatment, foster care, and juvenile delinquency—this project seeks to examine the various risk and protective factors associated with the future maltreatment of offspring. Differences between participants with a history of child welfare involvement who have gone on to abuse or neglect their own children and those who have not will be analyzed along a range of risk indices. Path modeling will be used to examine baseline risk factors and maltreatment continuity status for associations with specific future parenting practices and attitudes.
Taste Test: More Private SOUP
Presenter: Nicole Marsaglia (Computer and Information Science)
A major concern associated with the online social networking companies, such as Facebook, is their collection, analysis, and sale of personal data of users and other ways in which they violate user privacy with no sign of changing these practices. A decentralized online social network (DOSN) stores the data of each user on individual nodes, sometimes with the assistance of a limited number of servers, to effectively eliminate the need for a centralized provider and thus putting the privacy back into the users’ hands. Although DOSNs automatically improve user privacy, a number of new, relevant, and challenging privacy questions remain, such as how to deal with the natural heterogeneity of nodes in DOSNs. DOSNs are based on individuals; hence, every user will want privacy settings specific to his or her needs. Another important question deals with the management of encryption keys. In a DOSN, where there is probably not a centralized entity in charge of key management, who can be trusted to securely trade keys between users? Encryption is not sufficient for ensuring privacy. In a DOSN, when encrypted data are stored on an external node, that external node can still collect metadata. This research will be conducted on the Self-Organized Universe of People (SOUP), currently the most robust DOSN, implementing both privacy measures of differing degrees with real users and conducting user surveys to measure user satisfaction and usability.
Investigating the Structure of Antibody Networks (WINNER)
Presenter: Emily Martinez (Computer and Information Science)
The diversity of antibodies produced by b-cells in vertebrates is controlled by processes of genetic recombination and hyper-mutation. We understand that the diversity of the antibody repertoire is important, it is a reservoir that can be drawn upon when a unknown antigen enters the body. Until now, RNA-based measures of diversity focused on counts of sequences, and measures of similarity between individuals on the similarity of sequences. However, because multiple sequences can code for antibodies that have similar function, similarity of sequences is not always informative of a similar environment. Likewise, diversity measures that count the number of unique sequences will overestimate the diversity if there are many unique sequences but they are all a few mutations away from a single clone. I will present a new method that examines the underlying network structure of the antibody repertoire. This method will allow for more informative comparisons between the antibody repertoires of individuals and provide new measures for assessing antibody diversity.
Career Counseling GTF
Presenter: Colleen McCarthy (Counseling Psychology)
As an Institutional Priority and Strategic Alliance graduate teaching fellow (GTF) at the UO Career Center, I have had numerous opportunities for professional development that connect directly to my career goals. As a career counselor GTF, my work has focused primarily on career counseling and efforts to increase the use of Career Center services by graduate students. Current projects include conducting research and networking via Linkedin to determine the postacademic career paths of UO Ph.D. graduates, organizing career-related workshops for graduate students, and analyzing workshop feedback to determine graduate student satisfaction and degree of learning. During the previous academic year, I created a website tailored for graduate students to address topics such as the academic job search, the nonacademic job search, and postdoctoral opportunities.
Is the Government Cheating on Me?: Anxious Attachment Style Predicts Belief in Conspiracy Theories
Presenter: Brett Mercier (Psychology)
The most consistent predictor of belief in a conspiracy theory is belief in other conspiracies. Researchers have argued that conspiracy belief is driven by a global distrust of all authority. However, the origins of this global distrust have yet to be identified. In an undergraduate student sample (n = 409), we found that anxious attachment style was correlated with endorsement of conspiracy theories, suggesting that insecure attachment is one factor contributing to the development of the global distrust underlying conspiracy belief.
Urban Microbiome Pilot Study: Parks and Parking Lots
Presenter: Gwynhwyfer Mhuireach (Landscape Architecture)
Airborne microorganisms make up a significant fraction of particulate matter in urban areas and can affect human health in both positive and negative ways. Researchers have begun to explore variability in airborne microbial communities (AMC) across different coarse-scale land uses, yet little work has been done to assess fine-scale heterogeneity within urban areas. Although plants are known to be a source of microorganisms in the air, the degree of influence that nearby vegetation has on AMC at a particular site is poorly understood. This pilot study examined AMC collected from open areas of parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S RNA gene to identify bacterial taxa and geospatial information systems to quantify vegetation cover. The primary goal of the project was to explore the relationship between AMC and the amount of nearby vegetation. A secondary objective was to evaluate whether active and passive collection methods gave comparable results. Although AMC collected from open areas within the city were largely similar, an observable difference in AMC composition was found between parks and parking lots. This difference appeared to be primarily driven by the presence of rare taxa in parks. Active and passive sampling methods gave similar results for species richness and composition. Future work will investigate how vegetation structure and diversity may shape urban AMC. Ultimately, these findings may help improve green space design for healthier cities.
It’s Easy Being Green: A Replicable Model of Transferring Paper-based Curriculum to iPads
Presenter: Christabelle Moore (School Psychology)
Use of mobile devices, such as iPads, has recently and steadily increased in school settings. Simultaneously, the number of applications for these mobile devices has also increased dramatically; however, little research has been done on the feasibility of using tablet apps to deliver evidence-based interventions for students at risk for academic difficulties. The Moving Up! Mobile research study is being conducted to evaluate the usability and feasibility of the digital version (e.g., iOS app delivered via iPad) of Whole Number Foundations Level 1 (WNF-1), an evidence-based 1st grade mathematics intervention developed and tested at the UO Center on Teaching and Learning (CTL). Our goal is to identify a replicable plan for usability and feasibility testing that can be applied to evidence-based curricula in iOS app form. The first aim is to document the usability and feasibility of the tablet version of WNF-1, and the second aim is to identify current practices and preferences concerning the use of educational technology in schools and strategies for increasing efficiency and effectiveness of technology in classrooms. The CTL is partnering with local school districts to test the apps as they are developed. Methods and implications for practice and future research will be discussed.
Robot Body, Newtype Body: Drawing Humanity’s Future in Mobile Suit Gundam
Presenter: John Moore (East Asian Languages and Literature)
Existing English-language scholarship on the iconic 1979 anime Mobile Suit Gundam tends to focus on the military drama of this mecha series and its allegorical invocation of Japanese and global memory of World War II. In my research, I seek to expand the understanding of this vital text by stressing the series’ concern with humanity’s future, with a particular eye to its visual imagining of the human body. In its speculative fiction setting, the series does not merely reflect on past history; it didactically poses the question of humanity’s continued survival given a rapidly evolving world characterized by weapons with incomprehensible destructive ability and a generation of so-called “indifferent” young people reputedly incapable of forming sincere human bonds. Adolescents piloting giant humanoid robot weapons (mobile suits) who find themselves thrust into positions that will decide the future of the human race. In these adolescents, Gundam envisions a new evolution for the human race in its protagonist, the Newtype. The neohuman body of the Newtype is problematically laden with contradictory abilities: an extraordinary facility with technologies of destruction and a near psychic ability for empathetic understanding of human beings. The forward-facing tension between these three bodies—human, mobile suit, and Newtype—emerges as the central conflict of the series. Each category of body is visually realized with specific drawing strategies in their constituent lines, suggesting contemporary animation theory such as Ōtsuka Eiji’s ideas about cartoon plasticity contrasted with Cartesian-inflected military realism.
Before the Clock Runs Out: Archaeology in the Face of Erosion on St. Catherines Island, Georgia, USA (PEOPLE’S CHOICE WINNER)
Presenter: Matthew Napolitano (Anthropology)
Sea-level rise is a well-documented global phenomenon that is already having dramatic and often disastrous effects on human populations. Although most scholarly and media attention has focused on how human societies can prepare for and respond to rising sea levels, considerably less attention has been given to how sea-level change is impacting both natural and cultural resources. St. Catherines Island, located along the Georgia (USA) coast, serves as a case study to examine the damaging effects of sea-level rise on well-documented archaeological sites. Two at-risk sites are Fallen Tree, a large 15th- to 16th-century Native American village, and Mission Santa Catalina de Guale, one of the most important Franciscan missions from the 16th and 17th centuries. Although the church and associated buildings have been excavated, the surrounding largely unexcavated neophyte Native American village remains vulnerable and is currently being eroded. Current predictions are that if erosion continues unabated, the entire mission and village complex will be lost in the next century. Archaeologists and other scientists are working to mitigate the destruction of the island’s archaeological record. These finite archaeological resources should be protected because they enrich society’s understanding of the past and can be used to understand how coastal populations in the ancient past adapted to long-term ecological changes.
Landscape Evolution in Response to Laccolith Inflation on the Colorado Plateau: Insights from Numerical Modeling
Presenter: Daniel O’Hara (Geology)
Laccoliths are shallow plutonic structures that uplift and deform overlying horizontal and near-horizontal strata, proposed to develop through short (possibly <100 yr) episodic magmatic events. Numerous laccoliths ranging in age from 25 to 30 Ma occur around the rim of the Colorado Plateau. These structures provide a natural laboratory for studying localized dynamic topography that occurs on a smaller scale than the typical drainage basin size. The interaction of initial river drainage geometry, laccolith emplacement rate, and intrusion size on drainage development is poorly understood. Our research aims to understand the effect of an uplifting laccolith on pre-existing, steady-state topography both as a constraint on magmatic rates of processes and on the geometry of the paleo landscape. Using a bedrock landscape evolution model, we vary initial drainage geometries, laccolith shapes and sizes, and laccolith emplacement timescales to study drainage response to topography. We analyze the underlying equations that govern bedrock landscape evolution and characteristics of the resulting river networks such as drainage area, drainage divides, and channel orientations and longitudinal profiles. These results are used to develop metrics that characterize the drainage disruption caused by the laccolith, the effect of initial drainage geometry on laccolith erosion, and the timescales of inflation and landscape erosional response. We then apply our results to the Colorado Plateau, in particular, Mt. Hillers (Henry Mountains, UT) and Navajo Mountain (UT) to understand their emplacement rate, landscape response to inflation, and paleo drainage networks.
In Search of the Transformational: Evaluating Exhibitions to Enhance Museum User Experience
Presenter: Beatrice Ogden (Arts Management)
The National Association for Museum Exhibitions has published Standards for Museum Exhibitions and Indicators of Excellence that include seven considerations for exhibition development and implementation. In the section dedicated to indicators of excellence, the concept of a “transforming experience” was highlighted as a sign of an exemplary exhibition. This qualitative assessment comprises many elements, and my study starts with these indicators of excellence to develop an exhibition evaluation rubric. A growing trend in museum exhibition design is to move from an object-focused curatorial perspective to a visitor-centered engagement experience. I will examine how exhibit design can best be executed to enhance museum user experience. The initial literature review has resulted in the development of an evaluation rubric. Eight key elements have been identified as engendering a transformational experience: aesthetic robustness, emotionality, education and comprehension, implementation of technology, interactive elements, collaborative participation, immersive environments, and visual thinking strategies. Exhibitions housed at eight Pacific Northwest museums will be evaluated. The museums fall into one of four museum types: the art museum, the science center, the historical center, and the anthropological museum. These institutions will be compared on the basis of how they employ these eight elements. Based on the results of this comparison, I will propose a method of exhibition design that can provide a transformative museum experience.
A Performance Analysis of Accelerated Algorithms for Monte Carlo Simulations of Nuclear Reactor Cores
Presenter: David Ozog (Computer and Information Science)
A primary characteristic of history-based Monte Carlo neutron transport simulation is the application of multiple instruction, multiple data parallelism: the path of each neutron particle is largely independent of all other particles, so threads of execution perform independent instructions with respect to other threads. This model conflicts with the growing trend of computer vendors exploiting vector hardware, which accomplishes better parallelism and more computation per watt. Event-based neutron transport suits vectorization better than history-based transport but is difficult to implement and complicates data management and transfer. However, the Intel Xeon Phi architecture supports the familiar x86 instruction set and memory model, mitigating difficulties in vectorizing neutron transport codes. We compared the event-based and history-based approaches for exploiting vectorization in Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations. For both algorithms, we analyzed performance using the three execution models provided by Xeon Phi (offload, native, and symmetric) within the full-featured OpenMC framework. A representative microbenchmark of the performance bottleneck computation shows about 10× performance improvement using the event-based method. In an optimized history-based simulation of a full-physics nuclear reactor core in OpenMC, the Intel many integrated core (MIC) shows a calculation rate 1.6 times higher than a modern 16-core central processing unit (CPU), 2.5 times higher when balancing load between the CPU and 1 MIC, and 4 times higher when balancing load between the CPU and 2 MICs. To our knowledge, our calculation rate per node on a high fidelity benchmark (17,098 particles/second) is higher than that of any other Monte Carlo neutron transport application.
A Linguistic Analysis of Moore, a Language of Burinka Faso
Presenter: Sara Pacchiarotti (Linguistics)
Our project is a continuation of the UO Linguistic Field Methods class, a three-term class in which Ph.D. students describe the system of a language unknown to them, working from smaller units (sound inventory) to larger units (sentence structure). The language under investigation was Moore, a Gur language spoken in Burkina Faso. Our consultant was a native speaker of Moore and a current student at the UO. After reaching a consensus on the sound system of the language during the first term, every student in the class conducted linguistic research on a specific area of the Moore language. To make our efforts useful to a larger audience, we asked for Institutional Review Board approval to continue working with our consultant. We have two goals: (i) collect additional data and (ii) improve the quality of our research. The outcome of this project will be a book or collection of papers that describe pivotal aspects of the language by addressing all basic levels of language description (phonetics, phonology, morphology, and syntax). The overwhelming majority of linguistic descriptions of Moore are in French. Our collective work represents (i) a contribution to general knowledge about the structure of this language, (ii) an exploration of topics that have not been addressed in the available literature (or have been addressed within a different theoretical framework), (iii) a resource for typological work on Gur languages, and (iv) a chance for non-French-speaking scholars to become interested and/or involved in a language of Burkina Faso.
Ecology of Student Engagement
Presenter: Christine Pitts (Educational Leadership)
In this study, 2010–2011 data from Northwest middle schools were analyzed to understand the relationship between student engagement and a variety of conditions and factors. Research questions centered on the construct of student psychological and cognitive engagement in learning and theoretical categories of conditions and factors that make up the ecology of student engagement. The subparts of psychological and cognitive engagement analyzed in this study were teacher-student relationships, peer support for learning, family support for learning, control and relevance of school work, and aspirations and goals. This study provides promising evidence for the concept of a complex ecological system of student engagement that includes race, language, socioeconomic status, family, and community. Our findings, supported by past research, link these home and community factors to academic success and perseverance in school. We uncovered subtle stories of subpopulations of students identified by factors that are normalized through an achievement gap lens. In spite of the achievement gap, “education debt,” and the disproportionate school discipline some groups experience, our results show that students of color and students speaking a first language other than English may report higher levels of engagement when controlling for antecedent and confounding factors. The stories of these students in research are typically truncated because of a static conceptualization of the achievement gap. In future work, the metaconstruct of student engagement, made up of the complex dimensions outlined in our study, can be used to discover more counter-narratives about students’ relationships with their education.
Tracking Platinum-Based Anticancer Drugs in the Cell to Improve Drug Effectiveness
Presenter: Kory Plakos (Chemistry)
Platinum-based anticancer therapeutics such as cisplatin are used in a majority of chemotherapy treatments. Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug, but treatment is fraught with side effects such as neuropathy, kidney failure, hearing loss, and hair loss. Cisplatin accumulates on cellular DNA, but current evidence indicates that it targets other cellular components such as RNA and proteins. With the goal of better understanding the mechanism of action and off-target effects of platinum-based drugs, we are developing novel smart reagents that mimic cisplatin reactivity and are designed to work as flexible tools for biochemical studies. Using these new reagents, we will be able to visualize cellular components targeted by platinum-based drugs and isolate platinated biomolecules to study their platinum binding properties. The tool we use to achieve this broad functionality is the click reaction, which is a class of chemical reactions that are fast, high yielding, and ideal for this type of work. We have developed several cisplatin derivatives that participate in click reactions with a variety of partners such as fluorescent molecules, which are useful for cellular localization studies, turn-on fluorophores, which allow us to track click reactivity and eventually increase sensitivity, and paired clickable platinum reagents, which could be used for structural studies and to study the interactions of biomolecules. Our work will lead to a comprehensive understanding of platinum-based drugs and improve upon this important class of chemotherapeutics.
Archaeological Research Demonstrates Sustainable Living on Smaller Islands Despite Ecological Fragility
Presenter: Aaron Poteate (Anthropology)
Archaeological investigations in many of the world’s seas and oceans have revealed that humans were able to colonize even the smallest and most remote islands. Continued research has also demonstrated that islands—in particular smaller ones such as atolls—are highly susceptible to landscape transformation, the introduction of non-native plants and animals, and overexploitation of resources. My research in the Pacific and Caribbean is focused on explaining the ability of people living in “impoverished” and remote landscapes to thrive for centuries and millennia with minimal environmental impact because of sustainable practices. At the site of Grand Bay on Nevis Island in the Caribbean, evidence suggests that the most exploited shellfish species were flourishing despite being intensively harvested from ca. AD 890–1440. The region has a long history of animal translocation, evident at Grand Bay through the archaeological presence of guinea pig and agouti. Research in the Pacific on Mwoakilloa (Mokil) Atoll in the eastern Caroline Islands revealed the anthropogenic creation of a mound on the main islet along with taro patches throughout all three islets, suggesting long-term occupation and more intensive food production strategies. Zooarchaeological analysis indicates the incorporation of several well-known commensals (dogs, rats, and chickens) brought to the island near the time of initial occupation (ca. AD 250–450). Additional aspects of the diet include a heavy reliance on nearshore fish supplemented by mollusks, sea turtles, and terrestrial animals. Despite the introduction of non-native species and harvesting of local resources, there is currently no evidence of resource depression or species becoming extinct on the atoll.
High-Accuracy Sequencing of Rare Alleles with PELE-Seq
Presenter: Jessica Preston (Biology)
Genetically heterogeneous populations can evolve rapidly in response to changes in the environment through selection acting on new mutations or existing alleles. The allele frequency of rare single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a population has been difficult to track because of the high error rate of current next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) errors during the amplification step of DNA library preparation. We have developed a new NGS method, paired-end low-error sequencing (PELE-Seq), that drastically reduces the number of false-positive SNP results due to sequencing and PCR errors. Compared with traditional methods of high-throughput DNA sequencing, PELE-Seq eliminates 98% of false-positive SNP calls. As a proof of principle, we sequenced control Escherichia coli DNA libraries containing rare alleles at various frequencies of 0.25–0.1% and found that PELE-Seq is more accurate and sensitive than traditional NGS methods. We used PELE-Seq to identify rare alleles that have been selected for during laboratory adaptation of wild Caenorhabditis remanei nematode worms from natural populations.
Parenting Emerging Adults: What Does it Look Like?
Presenter: Sara Rabinovitch (Counseling Psychology)
Emerging adulthood has been defined as the developmental period between adolescence and adulthood (ages 18–25 years) with distinct characteristics, tasks, and challenges and is unique to Western developed societies, which support young people in prolonged exploration of education, career, and identity. Although less dependent on caregivers than adolescents, emerging adults have often not assumed enduring adulthood responsibilities such as financial and residential independence. Despite continued involvement of parents, little is known about parenting behaviors during emerging adulthood, especially behaviors that can facilitate emerging adulthood success. Research on parenting during emerging adulthood is limited by oversampled White college student populations, lack of parent-report data, and utilization of inappropriate measures designed to study parenting during adolescence. Existing research has also only examined general parenting styles (e.g., dimensions of warmth-control), which are not robust predictors across cultures, ethnicities, and economic groups. No researchers have examined specific parenting behaviors (e.g., monitoring and communication) and how these behaviors impact emerging adult success. A related question is whether parents and emerging adults agree on descriptions of how parents are parenting. The current study utilizes survey and observational data from 128 diverse emerging adults and their caregivers to meet two objectives: (1) ascertain whether parenting behavior constructs have multi-informant convergence by validating observational data with parent- and emerging adult-report and (2) examine parenting behavior predictors of emerging adult outcomes. This study will contribute to the extant literature by operationalizing parenting behavior during emerging adulthood and investigating associated emerging adult outcomes.
Girls in Foster Care: The Relationship between Peer Relations and Suicidal Thoughts
Presenter: Emily Reich (Counseling Psychology)
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in youth in the U.S. and is an issue that warrants further investigation and prevention efforts. This issue is especially relevant to the foster care population, because these youth are four to five times more likely to be hospitalized for suicide attempts than are other youth. Bullying and peer victimization have been linked to higher rates of suicidal ideation. Because boys and girls are socialized differently, gender must be considered when examining risk profiles. This study involved a sample of 100 girls in foster care (mean age at baseline = 11.54 years). We hypothesized that girls who perpetrate more relational aggression report more suicidal ideation over time than do their counterparts who report less negative peer interactions. In preliminary analyses, we found a positive association between suicidality and engagement in relational aggression at baseline (r = .21, p < .05) and 12 months (r = .25, p = .02), with trend-level significance at 24 months (r = .20, p = .06). This association will be further explored using multiple regression analyses to assess the unique and prospective impact of relational aggression on changes in suicidality over time. Understanding this connection is essential for developing preventive interventions that can ameliorate risk for negative mental health outcomes. Given the evidence of prospective links between relational aggression and suicidality, more universal approaches to prevention may be warranted and could begin at earlier ages.
How Do Platinum Drugs Affect Triple-Negative Breast Cancer?
Presenter: Emily Reister (Chemistry)
Over 50% of cancer treatment regimens used since the 1970s have included platinum-based chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin. These drugs have been particularly effective in cancers such as triple-negative breast cancer, where traditional breast cancer treatments are not effective. Although these drugs are used pervasively in cancer treatments, their mechanism of action remains largely unknown. To better understand how these drugs are functioning, we compare cisplatin treated triple-negative breast cancer cells and untreated cells using high-throughput RNA sequencing. This technique allows us to identify specific genes that are targeted by cisplatin, thus identifying which toxicity pathways are activated and which regulatory processes, such as alternative splicing, are affected. Another major problem in effective cancer treatment with platinum-based drugs is acquired resistance, the cause of which is also largely unknown. To gain insight into this problem, Oregon Health and Science University RNA sequencing data for cisplatin-resistant breast cancer cell lines will be bioinformatically compared with data for cisplatin-sensitive cell lines. This analysis should further elucidate which specific genes and pathways differ between resistant and sensitive cell lines.
Visual Art in Medical School: Integrating Visual Thinking Strategies in Medical School Curriculum
Presenter: Noriko Rice (Arts Management)
In the healthcare field, demand for patient-centered care is increasing. The doctor-patient relationship is crucial in patient-centered care and the delivery of high-quality healthcare. How does a medical student’s education prepare the student to foster the doctor-patient relationship and how might art-based training fit into this equation? I will highlight how education based on visual thinking strategies is used in medical schools across the country. Opportunities for training based on visual arts at Oregon Health and Science University will be explored and a proposal for an art-based program will be made with the Portland Art Museum and the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art as collaborators.
Methods of National Dissemination and Network Building for the UO Sustainable City Year Program
Presenter: Liz Rickles (Public Administration)
Five years ago, the Sustainable Cities Initiative launched the Sustainable City Year Program (SCYP), a catalytic learning model that leverages existing UO courses to work on applied sustainability projects for a single community stakeholder over an academic year. Effort was made to nationally disseminate the SCYP model, which is now running at 20 universities around the U.S., and its use is growing. My organizing efforts over the past 2 years have led to the creation of the EPIC (Educational Partnerships for Innovation in Communities) Network, a national network of SCYPs that aims to launch new student-city partnership programs in communities around the world and to support existing programs through tools and resources. I will present my methods and best practice recommendations for education model dissemination and national network building.
Beyond “Business As Usual”: Using Critical Storytelling to Engage the Complexity of Urban Indigenous Education (WINNER)
Presenter: Leilani Sabzalian (Critical and Sociocultural Studies in Education)
I am surveying the cultural, social, and political terrain of Indigenous education within an urban Title VII program in Oregon, exploring the constructive aspects and challenges of the educational efforts and the unintended consequences that are reproduced. Of particular concern in this study are the various discourses that Indigenous students, families, and educators navigate, the cultural and personal costs of those dynamics, and an analysis of what educators might need to understand to better serve Indigenous students and families. Data collection includes participant observation at Title VII sponsored events (e.g., tutoring sessions, craft and drumming nights, youth group meetings, and family gatherings), classroom and school observations, and in-depth and focus group interviews with students, families, Title VII service providers, and educators. Using a framework of critical storytelling, this study will generate a series of narratives that highlight the complexity of culturally responsive Indigenous education to explore oversimplified conceptions of how to best serve Indigenous students and communities. Guided by desire and survivance, these narratives will provide an intervention into deficit theories that often frame discussions of Indigenous students. Drawing on contemporary Indigenous studies, educational ethnographic literature, the contemporary literature on culturally responsive teaching, and teacher practical knowledge, analyses of these stories will then explore the macrosocial influences on Indigenous education within this context and document the insights that might better enable educators, students, and families to navigate these influences.
Linking Research, Assessment and Practice at the University Counseling and Testing Center
Presenter: Hillel Samlan (Counseling Psychology)
The assessment specialist GTF position at the University Counseling and Testing Center allows for better connections to be made between psychological science and clinical practice. In seeking to deliver campus mental health services which are accessible and effective for all students, the role of assessment is integral. Assessment helps identify changing trends, improve services, and better communicate what we do to a range of campus stakeholders. Selected current assessment projects at the counseling center will be discussed. This position is also highly valuable for counseling psychologists in training as it provides administrative and program evaluation experience that is typically not gained until after graduation. The relationship between this GTF position and trends in higher education and campus mental health service delivery will be discussed.
There’s an App for That: Tiered Instruction and Data-Based Decisions Using a Suite of Educational Technology Applications
Presenter: Rachel Santiago (School Psychology)
Educational technology has increased in popularity and prevalence in recent years, including the use of tablet computer devices, which utilize applications (“apps”), i.e., software designed for a specific purpose. Many apps are marketed as being educational and are used in classrooms nationwide. Tablets and educational apps may be well suited for supporting instruction and intervention delivery within a tiered framework. However, little research has examined the feasibility and usability of apps marketed as educational and the effectiveness of apps for improving student learning. One concern regards the utility of such apps for supporting teachers seeking evidence-based technology tools to implement tiered academic instruction and intervention. To address this concern, the UO Center on Teaching and Learning is developing the Learning Arcade, a suite of educational apps that have undergone rigorous testing using an internal platform that permits real-time evaluation of app effectiveness. The Learning Arcade aims to support teachers seeking to engage in data-based decision-making using tiered models of instruction and intervention in two ways: (a) by providing opportunities for students to engage in frequent and differentiated practice with critical academic content delivered via apps and (b) by providing teachers with information about student performance via apps designed to increase student learning. Teachers and students can also use the Learning Arcade to document and generalize the effectiveness of educational apps for improving student learning. I will examine the current state of educational technology, the relevance and goals of the Learning Arcade, and practical implications.
European Journalism Observatory
Presenter: Thomas Schmidt (Media Studies)
The European Journalism Observatory (EJO) is an international consortium conducting and disseminating leading research in journalism among scholars and practitioners. Publishing in ten languages, the EJO and its websites provide a unique exchange of media research across nations and the professional-academic divide. The EJO also conducts communications research and hosts conferences bringing together leading media scholars and practitioners from Europe and the United States. The UO School of Journalism and Communication has established a North America bureau and collaborates with the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at Oxford University in reporting and editing the English-language website, which serves as EJO’s flagship publication. Several objectives of the present research were identified: (1) make media and journalism research more accessible, visible, and useful for media practitioners and interested members of the public, while inviting more research institutions with a focus on journalism and journalism schools to participate in these dissemination activities, (2) address essential questions of press freedom, media accountability, and journalistic professionalism, (3) promote research transfer and new ideas in a time of rapid change in media communications, (4) build bridges between media scholars and practitioners, (5) create ties between leading scholars in the U.S. and Europe, (6) provide a comparative perspective of changing journalism cultures, (7) contextualize international trends in national and regional conditions, and (8) strengthen democratic institutions in Central and Eastern Europe, i.e., in regions such as Albania, Romania, and Serbia, where little information about media and journalism is provided by other online media.
Ant Colony Optimization in Performance Autotuning
Presenter: Nashid Shaila (Computer and Information Science)
Orio is a framework for automatically tuning the performance of codes written in different languages. Orio generates many tuned versions of the same operation using different optimization parameters and performs an empirical search for selecting the best among multiple optimized code variants. Different search algorithms are used to select this optimal result, e.g., exhaustive, simplex, and random search. In the process of finding the optimal output, these algorithms test different combinations of the tuning parameters and run several trials for getting the runtimes. We used this huge data set to design a classification problem using an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm. A literature search revealed an interesting approach called the Antminer. It classifies the given data set using the basic ant colony algorithm. We used the data produced by current search algorithms as input to the ACO. We considered three classes of code versions based on their performance (best performing, worst performing, and the rest). The performance results are given to the process, where classes are predefined based on attributes, and a classifier (in this case Antminer) allocates data samples to classes. For the attributes, we considered various code-specific values (number of loops and number of nested loops in a code), which can be used to identify other codes with similar characteristics. After the classification was performed on our training sets, we evaluated its effectiveness by using it to guide the autotuning of codes that were not part of the training set.
Attachment Classification and Interactional Patterns
Presenter: Amala Shetty (Counseling Psychology)
Interactional synchrony refers to the degree to which parent-child dyads display mutual responsiveness, engagement, and shared affect during interactions. Therefore, synchrony provides an avenue to study the nature of early parent-child relationships that highlights a distinct component of attachment theory’s focus on predictable caregiving. An interesting aspect of parent-child interactions includes research supporting the gender matching theory. Father-son and mother-daughter dyads tend to have the highest levels of synchrony in terms of more positive interactions, higher coherence, and greater mutuality. Although synchrony may be related to gender, research has also shown associations between gender and attachment patterns. The present study was conducted to examine whether child attachment classification can predict observed interactive quality, as defined as synchronicity, within a mother-child dyad and to explore the potential moderating effect of gender on the relation between attachment style and synchronicity. The 71 preschooler-mother dyads were observed completing a puzzle task. This research adds to the current parent-child interaction literature by examining attachment classifications at its four sublevels and studying these associations within a high-risk sample consisting of families of low socioeconomic status with incidents of child maltreatment. This research also provides insight into how the gender of the child may impact associations between attachment security and interactional synchrony. Research questions and hypotheses, data collection methods, analysis, and implications of the results will be discussed.
DrawBridge — Software-Defined DDoS-Resistant Traffic Engineering
Presenter: Lumin Shi (Computer and Information Science)
End hosts in today’s Internet have the best knowledge of the type of traffic they should receive, but they play no active role in traffic engineering. Traffic engineering is conducted by Internet service providers, who unfortunately are blind to specific user needs. End hosts are therefore subject to unwanted traffic, particularly from distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. This research proposes a new system to address this traffic-engineering dilemma. Realizing the potential of software-defined networking, we investigated a solution that enables end hosts to use their knowledge of desired traffic to improve traffic engineering during DDoS attacks. This project advances the state of Internet traffic engineering by involving traffic recipients and letting them play a more active role.
Actinomycin D Modulates CUG RNA and Splicing Factor Levels in a DM1 Model
Presenter: Ruth Siboni (Biology)
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an inherited disease characterized by the inability to relax contracted muscles. On a molecular level, affected individuals carry large mutations of CTG expansions in their DNA, which are toxic when converted (transcribed) to RNA. One possible treatment approach is to prevent CTG repeat DNA from being transcribed into RNA. Actinomycin D (ActD), a potent transcription inhibitor and chemotherapeutic approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, binds GC-rich DNA with high affinity. We found that ActD decreases CUG RNA levels in a dose-dependent manner in DM1 cell and mouse models at significantly lower concentrations (nanomolar) than needed when ActD is used as a general transcription inhibitor or a chemotherapeutic agent. ActD also significantly reversed DM1-associated splicing defects in these models within the currently approved human treatment range. Bioinformatics analyses confirm that low concentrations of ActD do not globally inhibit transcription in a DM1 cell model. These findings indicate that transcription inhibition of CTG expansions is a promising treatment approach for DM1.
Machine Learning Approaches for Linear Solver Selection
Presenter: Kanika Sood (Computer and Information Science)
Solving large sparse linear systems is a fundamental problem in high-performance scientific and engineering computing. The two main types of solution algorithms are direct and iterative. Because of the size of these systems and the computation complexity of exact solutions (O(n3), where n is the order of a square matrix), for very large problems approximate solutions are computed by using iterative methods (with typical convergence in O(n) iterations). A solver’s convergence rate depends on the matrix nonzero structure and values and is not known a priori. Application developers face the challenge of predicting which solver will converge fastest or at all for a given linear system. There have been several attempts to enable more automated solver selection and configuration, but none of these solutions are general enough and have not produced usable software infrastructure that would enable users to apply the methods for their own applications. Our goal is to produce an extensible methodology for classifying algorithms and software that supports applying it repeatedly as solvers evolve. We describe the use the following supervised learning approaches: K Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machines, Alternating Decision Trees, and Random Forests. We classify solvers based on linear system features (including structural and Eigen properties) and select the solver configuration that has been determined to perform best based on an extensive training set of problems. We demonstrate its effectiveness with real scientific applications.
Ancient DNA and Isotopic Analyses of Human Skeletal Remains from Chelechol ra Orrak, Republic of Palau
Presenter: Jessica Stone (Anthropology)
The prehistoric colonization of the remote Pacific Islands is one of the most daring and expansive examples of human dispersal. However, when and how people got to these islands has been largely reconstructed using archaeological data. Although recent attempts have been made in many parts of the world to answer questions regarding human migration and population movements using more advanced analytical techniques such as modern and ancient DNA (aDNA) or isotopic analysis of strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb), these approaches have not been widely used in the Pacific. We present the results of pilot research involving the first recovery of aDNA and Sr/Pb isotopic data from human skeletal material at the Chelechol ra Orrak rockshelter in Palau, one of the oldest and largest cemeteries in Remote Oceania (ca. 3000–1700 BP). In this study, bone and teeth samples from 10 burials were used for DNA extraction and measurement of Sr and Pb isotopes. Mitochondrial DNA from these individuals provides insight into the relationship between this population and those in the rest of the Pacific, and isotopic data provide information about local mobility between islands within the Palauan archipelago based on geological substrates. These data shed important new light on the origins and settlement patterns of prehistoric Micronesians and the dispersal of humans across the world.
Transcriptomic Profiling of Myotonic Dystrophy Patient-derived Tissues: Applications in Basic and Translational Research
Presenter: Adam Struck (Chemistry)
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder caused by the expansion of CTG repeats in the 3′ untranslated region of the DM protein kinase gene (DMPK). As has been observed in other microsatellite repeat diseases, the average length of the repeat in patients is loosely correlated with the age of onset and disease severity. DM1 has a prevalence of roughly 1 in 8,000 individuals worldwide and is characterized by myotonia, muscle weakness and atrophy, cardiac defects, and insulin resistance. Transcription of the pathogenic DMPK gene subsequently produces toxic RNAs that form nuclear foci, sequester muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins, and trigger the stabilization of the CELF1 protein. The imbalance resulting from the functional downregulation of MBNL proteins and upregulation of CELF1 is thought to be a primary cause of the widespread misregulation of RNA splicing, localization, and stability observed in DM1. Although mis-splicing patterns have been well characterized in a subset of DM1 patient-derived tissue types, changes in RNA expression and stability remain largely uncharacterized. I describe computational methods for studying changes in global RNA splicing, expression, and stability in >100 patient-derived high-throughput sequencing samples from 13 different muscle groups to address both basic and translational research questions: How does the combinatorial action of MBNL and CELF proteins determine splicing outcomes? What is the relative contribution of each of these protein families to the molecular changes observed in DM1? What are the most robust biomarkers of DM1 severity?
The Formation and Influence of Perceived Price Fairness at the Early Stage of Dynamic Pricing Strategy
Presenter: Wang Suk Suh (Marketing)
Dynamic pricing, a real-time–based pricing strategy, has become one of the most popular pricing strategies with the benefits from today’s online purchase environments. Although the type of pricing provides explicit advantages for both providers and consumers, previous studies warn of the potential negative fairness issues derived from the price discrepancy. The problems of price fairness may be even more prominent during the early stages of the new pricing strategy in an industry. To contribute to the knowledge of price fairness and dynamic pricing, the present study was conducted to investigate (1) the effects of the four predictors (magnitude of price difference, temporal proximity difference, nonmonetary sacrifice, and price setter fairness) on consumer perception of price fairness and (2) the influence of perceived price fairness on different behavioral intentions (i.e., revenge, self-protection, and repurchase intentions). The results provide empirical evidence for the formation and influence of perceived price fairness with the introduction of dynamic pricing in a service industry (the spectator sport industry) that recently adopted this pricing strategy.
Probing the Nanoscale: A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Didodecylquaterthiophene
Presenter: Benjamen Taber (Chemistry)
Interest in organic semiconductors stems from their myriad industrial applications, including flexible electronics, green materials, and energy harvesting. As device architectures continue to shrink, bulk charge transport processes no longer dominate, and nanoscale understanding of electronic structure—including defects—becomes increasingly important. Scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) can uniquely provide nanoscale and subnanoscale resolved information on the physical and electronic structure of nanomaterials, including organic semiconductors. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and constant-current topography imaging was used with a home-built cryogenic STM to study the conformations and electronic structure of didodecylquaterthiophene (DDQT) on an atomically-flat Au(111) substrate. The DDQT alkyl chains reveal information regarding the conformation of the thiophene subunits of each DDQT backbone. I present the conformational impact on the DDQT electronic structure, possible defects in DDQT-based electronics, and ideas for future studies of conjugated materials.
Establishing Reliability for a Global Social Responsibility Scale
Presenter: Michael Thier (Educational Leadership and Public Administration)
Definitional disagreements and a wide array of available measures make it difficult for researchers to assess global competence, i.e., the capacities and dispositions to understand and act on issues of global significance, and its subdomains. In this study, 18 survey items from three extant measures were examined to find a parsimonious approach for measuring one such subdomain: global social responsibility, i.e., one’s perceived level of interdependence with, responsibility to, and concern for the world community. Researchers combined six items from the social responsibility subscales of the Global Citizenship Scale, five items from the interpersonal social responsibility subscale of the Global Perspectives Index, and seven items from the responsibility subscale of the Global-Mindedness Scale. A reliability analysis on a Global Social Responsibility scale with 14 of the 18 items produced a revised measure with α = .75. Using this reliability study’s sample of International Baccalaureate (IB) students (n = 277), follow-up analyses with the revised measure revealed that IB students attending schools in the U.S. (n = 77) had significantly higher levels of global social responsibility on average than did their IB peers attending schools outside the U.S., with a Cohen’s d of .26, a small effect. This finding contradicted research that suggests students’ national affiliations do not predict global competence and findings of global competence gaps among students in U.S. schools. Implications for practitioners and educational policymakers are discussed.
Women’s Engagement in Health Promoting Behaviors while Pregnant and Addicted
Presenter: Amanda Van Scoyoc (Psychology)
This research was conducted to identify health promoting behaviors that pregnant women who are addicted to drugs and alcohol engage in because of concerns about the welfare of their babies in utero. We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 women while they were receiving inpatient treatment for addiction during pregnancy. Women were asked to retrospectively report on their experiences while pregnant, while using substances, and before accessing treatment. Results indicated that women are concerned about the effects of their continued use of substances on their babies and engage in health promoting behaviors and lifestyle choices as a means of trying to protect the baby from harm. Specifically, women described eating nutritious foods, increasing exercise, drinking more water, taking prenatal vitamins, getting regular sleep, and decreasing their use of substances. These efforts were widely prevalent and suggest that outside of their relationship with healthcare providers women attempt to decrease the harm to their babies on their own. This research was designed to have a positive impact. By better understanding the protective behaviors that women engage in prior to accessing healthcare, we can build programs and policies that leverage women’s motivation to become clean and provide the necessary services to help these women access healthcare and begin parenting unimpeded by addiction.
Economic Ideologies and Supreme Court Decisions: Human Rights vs. Economic Rights
Presenter: Christopher Weathers (Law)
Research shows that the Current Supreme Court not only favors business interests, but there is a trend towards favoring “big” business in particular. Several recent Supreme Court decisions have created new procedural barriers which limit the ability for individuals and entities to sue large companies. The most recent and perhaps the most compelling that supports this assertion is the Daimler AG v. Bauman decision that severally narrows the places a large corporation may be hailed to court. This paper explores reasons for this current trend by looking at judicial voting behavior compared to individual Justice’s ideological leanings and puts forth evidence of a pro-business judicial bias in the Supreme Court; gives examples of various Supreme Court rulings that create procedural barriers that make it harder for individuals and entities to sue corporations; and shows how a recent, 2014, Supreme Court ruling, Daimler AG v. Bauman, protects the large corporations in particular—as evidence of a disturbing trend towards favoring “big” business at the expense of smaller business entities and individuals. The problem with the Supreme Court favoring “big” business is: there is a danger of imposing economic ideological preferences into Constitutional law that is absent from the Constitution; in a free and fair society made up of people, a judicial bias in favor of business creates a disparity with regard to who has access to justice; and because Supreme Court decisions set precedence, preferential treatment towards business proliferates throughout the federal court system making it less likely in the future for people to have equal treatment under the law. This paper is meant to warn of the dangerous jurisprudential path that the Court seems to be on—a judicial bias in favor of business and/or big business, whether overtly or inadvertently, creating a serious access to justice discrepancy.
Large-Scale Imaging of Cortical Dynamics During Sensory Perception and Behavior (WINNER)
Presenter: Joseph Wekselblatt (Biology)
Sensory-driven behaviors engage a cascade of cortical regions of the brain to process sensory input and generate motor output. To analyze the temporal dynamics of neural activity at this global scale, we developed a system to perform functional imaging across large areas of cortex using a transgenic mouse expressing GCaMP6s and integrated this system with head-fixed visually guided behavior. This technique allows imaging of activity across the dorsal surface of cortex with columnar spatial resolution and temporal resolution of approximately 100 msec. Images obtained while animals performed an orientation discrimination task revealed a progression of activity in different cortical regions associated with different phases of the task. After cortex-wide patterns of activity are determined, key regions can be selected for two-photon microscopy to measure responses at the level of ensembles of individual neurons. This paradigm will be useful for probing information flow in brainwide networks involved in many sensory and cognitive processes.
Everybody Wants to Let It Go: The Phenomenal Appeal of Disney’s Frozen
Presenter: Kristen Wright (Media Studies)
Frozen has inspired viral videos of soldiers in Afghanistan breaking into “Let it Go” in their barracks, dozens of Elsas trick-or-treating on your doorstep, hair and make-up tutorials on YouTube, and adorable daddy/daughter videos reenacting movie scenes word for word. These examples are just the tip of the iceberg of responses to Disney’s 2013 film, whose success is a fascinating phenomenon. In addition to the traditional target audience of young girls who are a part of the “princess industry,” the film appeals across gender, age, and demographics. Did Disney deviate from a classic formula with success or did Disney rely on its usual formula and by sheer luck hit it out of the ballpark this time? How did new media contribute? Was the Internet or proliferation of smart phones and tablets ripe for the Frozen soundtrack and videos help this phenomenon go viral? Why are many who are usually highly critical of Disney, such as some feminists, the LGBTQ community, artists, and scientists, praising Frozen? Dozens if not hundreds of groups have embraced and identified with the film, from autism advocates to college students. This project investigates these questions about Frozen. By analyzing multiple characteristics of the film, including marketing, storyline, history, relationships, animation, and music, the appeal and success of Frozen are explored. Lenses include feminism, gaze, political economy, and cultural studies.
Global Glaciations 2.4 Billion Years Ago
Presenter: David Zaharov (Geology)
Between 2.4 and 2.2 billion years ago (Ga), Earth experienced several global glacial events, and the free oxygen emerged in the atmosphere for the first time. These major events crucially affected subsequent evolution of the geosphere; however, the relationship between the glaciations and the oxygenation event remain unclear partly because the uncertainties in the temporal relationship of these two events are too large. The scientific community has not agreed on how many glaciations occurred between 2.4 and 2.2 Ga and whether there were glaciations that had the so-called “Snowball” effect. Using stable isotope geochemistry and precise geochronology methods applied to products of hydrothermal alteration, my research indicates that it is possible to characterize the timing and extent of the glaciations. Using sedimentary records from the Archean to the present, I am looking for secular changes in geochemistry that reflect the evolution of surface conditions, including the emergence of free oxygen in the atmosphere. Preliminary results based on a study of ultralow-δ18O rocks from Karelia, Russia indicate that there were probably at least two Snowball (or perhaps Slushball) glaciations at ca. 2.39 Ga and 2.23 Ga. Studies of shales (fine-grained clastic rocks) reveal that the intensity of weathering has not been affected by the presence or absence of free oxygen in the atmosphere and was much higher during or right after the glaciations.
Internet Routing Anomaly Detection and Root-cause Analysis
Presenter: Mingwei Zhang (Computer and Information Science)
The Internet consists of multiple autonomous components. The different entities of the Internet connect to each other using interdomain Internet routing protocols, i.e., border gateway protocols (BGPs). However, BGPs are not designed with security in mind, and the attackers can exploit the vulnerabilities to conduct different types of attacks on the Internet. We have developed two anomaly detection systems, Buddyguard and I-seismograph, which monitor the Internet routing status on both the global level and the provider network level. The systems can detect anomalous events on the Internet and locate the root cause for each event, helping the operators to react quickly.
Designing Information for Remediating Cognitive Biases in Decision-Making
Presenter: Yunfeng Zhang (Computer and Information Science)
Human reasoning and decision making is heuristic and reflects systematic errors or cognitive biases. The recent resurgence of interest in intelligent computational assistance for big data analytics and complex decision-making puts a new emphasis on understanding cognitive biases and whether and how they might (or should) be remediated. We report an empirical study of two cognitive biases: conservatism and loss aversion. Two remediation techniques recommended by previous research were tested: the expected return method (an actuarial-inspired approach presenting objective metrics) and bootstrapping (a technique successful in improving judgment consistency). The results indicate that the two biases can occur simultaneously and can have huge impacts on decision-making. However, these two debiasing techniques are only partly effective. These findings suggest a need for more research on debiasing and indicate some possible directions for exploring debiasing techniques and building decision support systems.
Strategies for Merging Contemporary Urban Policy with SCI Programming and Research Priorities
Presenter: Kelsey Zlevor (Community and Regional Planning)
The Sustainable Cities Initiative (SCI) supports applied, diverse, and prominent faculty research pertaining to sustainable innovation each year. These projects, along with other specialized events and outreach such as hosting yearly Experts in Residence (EIR), engages and informs faculty, students, and practitioners from multiple disciplines on timely and significant issues. My work integrates the originally separate sectors of SCI, i.e., professorial research, outreach programming such as EIR, and knowledge of up-coming and prominent legislative issues at the state and regional levels, to infuse a new degree of relevancy and utility to SCI’s efforts. Through analysis of current and future legislative issues, SCI can define a strategic research and topic theme for each year. Researching real-world legislation issues and incorporating the findings to guide each year’s faculty research and community outreach is a new approach that can open doors for student involvement and increase the scope of SCI’s impact. This pairing focuses the entire year of research and speaker events on an apex of inquiry and provides unification, direction, and an in-depth understanding of the relationship between research, policy, and community education.